Trial Ebola Vaccines
On December 8, 2022, a shipment of trial Ebola vaccines reached Uganda, the first of its kind, that will undergo further evaluation in a clinical trial to determine efficacy against the Sudan ebolavirus. The arrival of these 1,200 doses of trial vaccines comes only 79 days after Uganda announced an Ebola outbreak on September 20, 2022. The speed of this response is unprecedented.


Preceding the arrival of the trial Ebola vaccines in Uganda, the Ugandan Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization (WHO) announced an Ebola outbreak in Uganda on September 20, 2022, after confirming a lethal case of Ebola in Mubende District due to the Sudan ebolavirus.

As the outbreak continued, authorities placed lockdowns in certain districts in Uganda. Additionally, authorities restricted travel and ended school terms earlier. These measures seem to have been largely effective: since November 27, Uganda reported no new cases.

Health in Uganda

As a low-income country, the threat that Ebola outbreaks pose is severe. In 2019, the GDP of Uganda stood at $35.35 billion, with 3.83% of the GDP going toward health expenditure.

According to WHO data from 2018, Uganda faces challenges to its health situation as a result of high rates of communicable diseases. Additionally, “malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB and respiratory, diarrhoeal, epidemic-prone and vaccine-preventable diseases are the leading causes of illness and death,” the WHO reported. These diseases are responsible for more than half of the nation’s morbidity and mortality statistics.

The health care conditions and the availability of medical care vary widely depending on the area. More specifically, rural and remote areas face a shortage of supplies and a lack of human resources, resulting in less patient care, poor health information, limited access to health services and the inappropriate usage of medications.

Current Situation

There are no vaccines available to protect against the strain of Ebola responsible for the outbreak in Uganda, the Sudan ebolavirus species, which is why the trial is necessary. WHO has noted that the arrival of trial Ebola vaccines in Uganda in less than 100 days since the initial outbreak is a “historical milestone in the global capacity to respond to outbreaks.”

The organization went on to emphasize how this vaccine’s fast availability is the result of many international organizations and researchers collaborating and working together. It also comes as a direct result of investments from countries such as the United States to allow WHO to coordinate and focus work on priority health concerns, like Ebola.

Potential Global Impact

The arrival of the trial Ebola vaccines in Uganda offers a promising global impact. Dr. Matshidiso Moeti, the WHO Regional Director for Africa, noted in a statement to WHO, “[The trial] showcases the power of scientific research on our continent and how working in collaboration with international partners we can develop critical tools that will limit the lethal effects of Ebola.” The speed and collaboration that brought about the trial of Ebola vaccines may help combat other diseases and global health concerns in the future.

Impact for Uganda

Once trials reach completion and a vaccine proves effective against the Sudan ebolavirus, this will have a direct impact on the country’s population. Uganda has seen Ebola outbreaks due to the Sudan ebolavirus in nine different districts of Uganda, with 142 confirmed cases by December 5, 2022. From these confirmed cases, Ugandan authorities noted 55 deaths.

Outbreak control for this virus requires several different interventions, including case identification, contact tracing, sufficient laboratory capacity, safe burials, proper hygiene and sufficient treatment early on. As Uganda is a low-income country, recently impacted by food insecurity, severe weather and the COVID-19 pandemic, disease outbreaks can be devastating. Thus, a vaccine to prevent further outbreaks will significantly assist Uganda.

Moving Forward

Ultimately, the arrival of trial Ebola vaccines to combat the Sudan ebolavirus in Uganda shows that through collaboration it is possible to create countermeasures against serious viruses in a minimal amount of time. For the country of Uganda, it is a message of hope and assurance that the international community is capable and prepared to work together and build solutions for further Ebola outbreaks that may arise.

– Johanna Bunn
Photo: Wikipedia Commons

Ebola Outbreak in Uganda
About 41% of Uganda’s population lives in poverty in 2022. The Ebola outbreak in Uganda has put the region of central Uganda at an even greater risk.

Ebola in Uganda

The Ebola outbreak in Uganda occurred in September 2022. In October 2022, the Ugandan Ministry of Health reported 43 cases and 29 deaths due to the rare Sudan strain of Ebola which can have up to a 90% mortality rate. However, outbreaks may now become less of a problem in Uganda as a consequence of the rest of the world’s increasing pandemic preparedness in the wake of COVID-19.

Previously, Uganda was not able to fortify its healthcare system due to a lack of support and funding. As a result, when this rare strain of Ebola began to attack several districts in the country, Uganda did not have the infrastructure necessary to appropriately contain it. One can see this as a clear indicator that countries like Uganda are still in need of a lot of help, especially from countries like the United States. Patients that have or are suspected of having Ebola also often are diagnosed with malaria which is another sign of people who are in need of assistance.

Uganda’s poverty rate has been climbing for the last decade due to a lack of infrastructure and economic growth. This has made it more difficult to effectively fight against the Ebola outbreak. Uganda does not have enough trained personnel in order to service all of the infected individuals.

Outside Impact

Organizations like Doctors Without Borders have stepped in, erecting temporary hospitals, to provide initial emergency assistance. Meanwhile, on October 6, 2022, USAID donated materials in order to help treat patients who have contracted the disease. It has deployed supplies in a timely manner in hopes that the spread does not get any worse and impact Uganda even more.

The quickness and severity of this outbreak are signs of larger struggles that the country is having when it comes to its economy and healthcare systems. There has been a noticeable response from within and outside of the country but if efforts do not keep up, the effects of this outbreak may only become worse and more noticeable in this community.

USAID, by way of the World Health Organization (WHO), has also provided support to Uganda by providing three viral hemorrhagic fever kits to help combat the spread of Ebola and an assortment of PPE to ensure the safety of all individuals in the area. These supplies have proven invaluable to the efforts of slowing this outbreak and continued support will likely be necessary for a while.

Looking Ahead

Uganda does have experience fighting outbreaks similar in nature to this one as it fought an Ebola outbreak in 2019 and completely contained it in less than a year. Hope exists that with that experience, they will be able to have the situation under control in less time than that and Ugandans will be able to return to normalcy.

– Alex Peterson
Photo: Flickr

Sports programs can reduce poverty by promoting health, education and diplomacy in developing countries. The Foundation for Global Sports Development creates and supports numerous programs around the world to uplift children through sports. Access to safe and educational sports opportunities can prepare children and entire nations for success by teaching them valuable sportsmanship and conflict-resolution skills.

The Foundation for Global Sports Development

The Foundation for Global Sports Development began as an organization called Justice for Athletes in 1996. To this day, the Foundation “delivers and supports initiatives that promote fair play, education and the benefits of abuse-free sport.” For more than two decades, the Foundation’s central focus has empowered youth by encouraging young athletes to speak up about emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The Foundation also awards scholarships and grants, coordinates educational programs, promotes gender equality in sports and collaborates with countries to offer sports opportunities to children with socioeconomic disadvantages. In March 2021, the Foundation collaborated with the International Table Tennis Federation Foundation (ITTF) to support grassroots projects that help participants learn problem-solving skills for broader community issues through table tennis. The Foundation for Global Sports Development models how sports programs can reduce poverty by sponsoring children and teaching them valuable skills from a young age.

Early Childhood Benefits

Sports often teach children how to resolve conflict peacefully and respectfully. Conflict-affected areas may particularly benefit from sports programs because sports can teach children to overcome differences and work together as part of a team. According to ReliefWeb, in 2019, “1.6 billion children (69%) were living in a conflict-affected country,” a situation that continues to intensify. When children develop the skills to resolve conflict peacefully, in their adulthood, they can serve as peacemakers across a conflict-ridden nation.

Sports programs can also promote health and gender equality. These programs keep children active and often include co-ed interactions and relationships that help children learn to treat people equally, regardless of gender. Sports programs may even give children who excel at sports the opportunity to turn sport into a career and potentially support themselves and their families. From early childhood, sports programs can reduce poverty by encouraging diplomacy, boosting health, advancing gender equality and opening doors to career opportunities.

National Development

On a national level, sports programs can help raise awareness about social issues and public health. For example, in 2014, the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) teamed up with the World Bank and the World Health Organization (WHO) to raise awareness about Ebola and help combat the outbreak in West Africa. World-renowned soccer players participated in the campaign, and as popular icons, they spread awareness about preventative measures to protect against Ebola. Sports programs can also improve public health on a local level. Coaches often help children adopt good hygiene practices and understand the importance of physical activity and nutrition. Sports programs may even serve local economies by creating jobs in coaching and mentorship.

Individual sports programs may only reach one small community but have impacts that have the potential to reach an entire nation. Former South African president and anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela harnessed “the power of sport during the 1995 Rugby World Cup” to reunite South Africa after the abolition of apartheid. Mandela’s words at the 2000 Laureus World Sports Awards highlight the transformative power of sport: “Sport has the power to change the world. It has the power to inspire, it has the power to unite people in a way that little else does.”

– Cleo Hudson
Photo: rawpixel

Marburg Virus in West Africa
Africa is a continent comprising of diseases and illnesses that affect many people’s lives. Notable examples of such ailments include HIV, malaria, Ebola and even COVID-19, impacting the lives of many impoverished communities of Africa. Now, a recent report of the Marburg virus in West Africa is starting to raise concern and officials from the World Health Organization (WHO) are scrambling to address the situation before it intensifies.

The Background

In August 2021, health officials from Guinea confirmed the first case of the Marburg virus disease in a deceased West African man. The patient, who started to develop the illness in late July 2021, went to a local clinic to seek treatment, where he displayed high fever, abdominal pain and external bleeding around his teeth. The man died less than two weeks later in the town of Guéckédou in Southern Guinea, which is in the same region where the Ebola virus broke out in 2014 and 2021.

What is the Marburg Virus?

Marburg is a type of virus that comes from the same family as Ebola and causes hemorrhagic fever in the individual who contracts it. Anyone infected is prone to experiencing internal bleeding, which affects vessels, organs and the body’s ability to regulate itself. Because of the severity of the damage, Marburg virus disease is extremely dangerous with an average case mortality rate of around 50%. In past outbreaks, fatality rates reached as high as 88%. The last noted presence of the virus was in 2008 with the last major outbreak occurring in 2005 in Angola.

Though Marburg has the potential to be very deadly, viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever are rare and are usually limited to areas with specific animals that host the viruses. In 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that fruit bats carry the virus, meaning that a human can only become infected through prolonged exposure in caves or similar habitats. However, once the virus infects one person, the Marburg virus is easily transmittable through direct contact with another individual. The timeline in which a person will start to display symptoms can be anywhere between two and 21 days after infection Although only a single case was confirmed so far, the WHO found the need to declare an outbreak in West Africa due to how easily the Marburg virus can spread.

What are Health Officials Doing?

Due to the concern that the Marburg virus could trigger an epidemic in West Africa, the WHO is taking precautions to ensure that the virus does not spread much further. Since the discovery, Guinea has attempted to track anyone who interacted with the patient. The country is monitoring at least 172 people, ordering them to quarantine to prevent transmission. The WHO has also dispatched a team consisting of epidemiology and socio-anthropology experts, who are now on the grounds of the virus site and are assisting with the investigation of Marburg virus cases. Efforts are also going into improving cross-border surveillance. Since Guéckédou is relatively close to Sierra Leone and Liberia, the WHO is working with authorities to ensure the virus does not spread outside of Guinea.

Disease and Poverty

As it currently stands, there is no known cure for Marburg virus disease, though remedies are in development. Right now, the best way to treat someone infected with the Marburg virus is through supportive care and rehydration. Doing so will reduce the likelihood of the disease becoming fatal. With that said, this current situation in Guinea speaks volumes about the healthcare system in Africa and the specific vulnerabilities of Africa.

Africa is the most disease-prone continent in the world, yet most of its people do not have access to treatment that will help protect against these viruses. In Guinea, which is home to 13 million people, not even 4% of the nation’s population has received full vaccination against COVID-19. If people in West Africa have limited access to a globally distributed COVID-19 vaccine, the likelihood of them easily obtaining treatment for a disease like Marburg or Ebola is slight. For these reasons, officials need to prioritize addressing health inequities and improving access to healthcare in developing regions such as Africa.

– Eshaan Gandhi
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Healthcare in LiberiaThe 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa killed more than 4,800 people in Liberia and infected thousands of others. However, these data points only scratch the surface of Ebola’s effect on healthcare in Liberia. Ebola’s devastation affected the provision of healthcare services in West Africa and caused an additional 10,600 deaths due to HIV, tuberculosis and malaria. In countries such as Liberia, more medical training and equipment means healthcare in Liberia has strengthened since the Ebola outbreak. Ebola exposed the weaknesses in the healthcare system of Liberia and showed the Liberian government and international aid organizations particular areas needing improvement and reform.

The World Bank’s Involvement

After recognizing the struggles of Liberia’s healthcare system during the Ebola epidemic, the World Bank devised specific ways to assist Liberia. For example, in May 2020, the World Bank approved the Institutional Foundations to Improve Service for Health Project for Liberia (IFISH). The four-component program focuses specifically on improving health services and outcomes for women, children and adolescents. The six-year program costs $84 million, of which $54 million of funding comes from the United States. Roughly 50% of the budget will be dedicated to health facilities and construction in Liberia. The program also attempts to lay the groundwork for future Liberian healthcare officials. The program includes training health workers and financing certain undergraduate and postgraduate faculties.

The Yale Capstone Project

For multiple years, the Yale Jackson Institute for Global Affairs has worked alongside the Yale Global Health Institute to create a project-based global health course for Yale seniors. The program allows students to explore the intersection of public health and policy. The students of this program have contributed to recovery efforts in Liberia. The program has assisted in establishing proof to encourage partners and policymakers to undertake significant changes in Liberia’s main medical school. The 2015 class conducted case studies on Rwanda and Ethiopia to generate targeted policy solutions in Liberia. Overall, the partnership was deemed a “win-win” for Liberia and the students involved.

CDC Field Epidemiology Training Program

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been actively aiding healthcare in Liberia since 2007. However, it did not expand its Liberian focus until the Ebola outbreak. Accompanied by more traditional CDC programs such as malaria intervention and the provision of vaccines, Liberia receives assistance through the CDC’s Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP). The three-tiered educational initiative aims to equip Liberian healthcare workers with the knowledge and tools to investigate and respond to disease outbreaks. At the close of 2016, Liberia had 115 FETP-trained staff. The FETP graduates will go on to provide field support in response to disease outbreaks across Liberia. With graduates from all 15 counties and 92 health districts in Liberia, fellows of FETP work to contain outbreaks and prevent them from turning into local or global epidemics.

Room for Improvement

Healthcare in Liberia is improving due to Liberia’s coordinated recovery efforts with multiple organizations. Nevertheless, Liberia still battles with increasing civilian access to healthcare and the funding of critical health institutions. For example, two-thirds of rural families need to travel for more than an hour to access a health center. These extended travel times can significantly impact the healthcare outcomes of Liberians. Moreover, hospitals are struggling to survive because funding from donors has slowed since the Ebola outbreak. In Liberia’s health system, primary healthcare facilities are largely underfunded.

While these struggles persist, they should not overshadow the significant improvements made since the Ebola outbreak. With aid, commitment and effort, healthcare in Liberia can improve further.

– Kendall Carll
Photo: Flickr

2021 Ebola Outbreak In February 2021, the West African country, Guinea, announced that it was facing an outbreak of the Ebola virus, the first the country has seen since the 2013-2016 outbreak. However, this time around, the 2021 Ebola outbreak may be different than that of five years ago.

What is the Ebola Virus?

The Ebola virus is a hemorrhagic fever that is often fatal with a mortality rate that is anywhere from 25% to 90%. The disease spreads through contact with bodily fluids. Ebola survives in nature by spreading between forest-dwelling bats and some other animals, though it sporadically transmits to humans when contact is made with a diseased carcass. Before the epidemic in 2013, most previous Ebola outbreaks occurred in rural communities with cases in the single or double digits.

Previous Ebola Outbreaks

The 2013-2016 epidemic was the largest Ebola outbreak by an unprecedented margin and was the first time the World Health Organization (WHO) considered the disease a major global public health threat. The epidemic, which also began in Guinea, took hold quickly and easily for many reasons. There had previously been no outbreaks of Ebola in West Africa. This caused people to assume the symptoms were that of Lassa fever, a more common disease in the region. The virus had been circulating for three months before the World Health Organization declared an outbreak in March of 2014.

The disease quickly spread within and around Guinea since the systems for contact tracing and containment were weak. By July 2014, it had reached the capital of Guinea, Conakry, and the neighboring capitals of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Funerary traditions and rituals increase transmission because they include touching and spending time with the dead body so traditional burial practices were forbidden.

By the time the WHO designated the virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, it was borderline out of control. By the end of the epidemic, Ebola had erupted in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia. The disease also spread to other countries in Africa, Europe and the U.S. This resulted in nearly 30,000 cases with more than a third of fatalities.

The 2021 Outbreak of Ebola

In February 2021, one Ebola case was confirmed in the village of Goueke in the southeastern region of Guinea. As of March 3, 2021, the number has reached 17 reported cases, 13 of which are confirmed, along with seven deaths.

However, there is less cause for concern than there was five years ago. Though Guinea’s healthcare system needs improvement, past mistakes and experiences have prepared the region better than ever. The world is certainly better positioned to successfully manage the most recent Ebola outbreak.

Reasons for Optimism

  1. Speed: WHO personnel are already working with the Guinean healthcare system to squash the virus before it becomes a major outbreak. A week after the first case was reported, people began setting up testing sites, contact tracing and treatment facilities. Efforts were also made to improve community engagement to stop the spread.
  2. Prevention: President George Weah of Liberia and the WHO are taking preemptive measures to prepare Liberia and Sierra Leone for the possibility of the spread of the virus.
  3. Science: Since the last major outbreak, the WHO has approved two vaccines for use against the Ebola virus. In fact, unlike the last time, when there was no vaccine at all, 500,000 vaccines are ready to be delivered wherever there is an outbreak. The Guinean health ministry has already set up three vaccination sites in the region near the outbreak and had vaccinated more than 1,000 people at the end of February 2021. It is also using a system called ring vaccinations. This interrupts the spread by vaccinating people directly connected to an Ebola case.
  4. Precedent: There have been outbreaks of Ebola since 2016, and thanks to the above, none have gotten out of control. When the DRC had an outbreak in 2018-2020, nearly 50,000 people were already vaccinated, slowing the spread. Many other countries have approved the vaccines in preparation for a possible outbreak within their own borders.

Global panic arises whenever a deadly disease resurfaces in impoverished communities. However, sufficient preparedness, resources and lessons learned will likely ensure the 2021 outbreak of Ebola is short-lived.

Elyssa Nielsen
Photo: Flickr

ErveboIn 2014, an outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone resulted in more than 28,000 cases and 11,000 deaths. Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks were documented since the 1970s. However, the widespread nature of the 2014 epidemic caused global fear. Many countries responded by imposing travel restrictions against West African nations. Fortunately, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first Ebola vaccine (Ervebo) in December 2019.

10 Facts About the Ervebo Ebola Vaccine

  1. Trials began in 2018. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) began to trial Ervebo in 2018 as an investigational vaccine under an expanded access program. The DRC experienced the world’s second-largest Ebola outbreak. The vaccine use aimed to prioritize people most at risk such as healthcare workers.
  2. Roughly 290,000 people received vaccinations. In response to the Ebola outbreak in the DRC, more than 290,000 people have received the Ervebo vaccination under compassionate use protocols. Compassionate use allows for the limited allocation of an unlicensed vaccination due to a dangerous public crisis.
  3. Ervebo is 100% effective. A study in Guinea during the 2014-2016 outbreak indicates that Ervebo was 100% effective for individuals 18 and older. In a comparison of cases, Ervebo was 100% effective in preventing cases of Ebola with symptom onset more than 10 days after inoculation. The comparison involved 2,108 participants in an “immediate” vaccination group and 1,429 participants in a “delayed” vaccination group.
  4. Trials outside of West Africa. In addition to West Africa, trials of the Ebola vaccine occurred in Canada, Spain and the United States. Because Ebola is not endemic to Europe or North America, researchers wanted to measure the antibody response among individuals with no history of previous exposure. The antibody responses among participants in Canada, Spain and the U.S. were close to that of individuals in Liberia and Sierra Leone.
  5. Ervebo is safe for all participants. Roughly 15,000 individuals in Africa, Europe and North America were part of vaccine trials. The trials determined that the vaccine is safe and effective for all individuals. Individuals reported only minor side effects.
  6. Ervebo is a single-dose vaccine. Ervebo is a single-dose injection that does not require boosters. This allows for faster distribution and protection against EVD. The vaccine is a “live, attenuated vaccine that is genetically engineered to contain protein from the Zaire ebolavirus.”
  7. The vaccine received priority review. Due to the importance of developing an Ebola vaccine as a public health measure, Ervebo received a priority review and a tropical disease priority review voucher by the FDA under a program supporting the development of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of tropical diseases. Ervebo also received a breakthrough therapy designation to assist with the development of the vaccine. The FDA worked closely with the company, Merck & Co., Inc., and completed the evaluation in less than six months.
  8. The vaccine will be available to those most in need. Due to limited supplies of Ebola vaccines, Ervebo will be available as part of a ring vaccination strategy during future outbreaks. This strategy means that those most at risk will receive first priority. Vaccination efforts will start with people like healthcare workers and extend outward to other members of the community.
  9. A global stockpile will be available in January 2021. Beginning in January 2021, a global stockpile of the vaccine will be available through the International Coordinating Group (ICG) on Vaccine Provision. The ICG also manages stockpiles of cholera, meningitis and yellow fever vaccines and will be responsible for decision-making on allocation.
  10. Four African countries have licensed the vaccine. In February 2020, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Burundi, Ghana and Zambia licensed the Ervebo vaccine. The license means the manufacturer can stockpile and widely distribute the vaccine within these countries. No further research or clinical trials are necessary with a license.

The Future

One cannot undo the damage of past outbreaks but the Ervebo Ebola vaccine may be a valuable tool for future Ebola prevention efforts. As the vaccine becomes widely available in future years, the World Health Organization hopes the population of West Africa will achieve herd immunity against the disease, eradicating the spread of EVD. The technology used in the development of the Ebola vaccine will also aid in the quick development of vaccines for future global outbreaks. As the world continues to struggle against COVID-19, the success of Ervebo provides a blueprint for the prevention and mitigation of future epidemics.

Eliza Browning
Photo: Flickr

5 Ways the DRC Can Slow the Spread of COVID-19
On November 18, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) and government officials in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) announced the end of the latest Ebola outbreak. This outbreak started in June 2020 amid the COVID-19 pandemic and was the 11th Ebola outbreak in the DRC since the first recognition of the disease in 1976. “It wasn’t easy, but we’ve done it!” tweeted the Regional Director of WHO, Dr. Matshidiso Moeti. The DRC, one of the most impoverished countries on earth, emerged from the wake of the most recent Ebola outbreak after learning some important lessons. The information gained from this occurrence has offered insight that can help slow the spread of COVID-19 on a global scale.

At the start of the pandemic, the country’s COVID-19 mortality rate was 10%. In just six months, that rate decreased to 2.5%. Here are the five key components the DRC discovered are vital in its attempt to slow the spread of a viral outbreak.

5 Ways the DRC Can Slow the Spread of COVID-19

  1. Community engagement is of extreme importance in slowing the spread of COVID-19. The Ebola aid response initially failed due to significant mistrust from people in the communities that needed help. The continuous conflict between the militant groups and the government made it difficult to earn the trust of DRC citizens. As the outbreak grew, aid workers realized that spending more time directly engaging with individuals in affected communities made them more trusting. Workers built confidence by increasing the community’s knowledge of the virus. Engagement from spiritual advisors, educators and other community leaders in addition to politicians and law enforcement is essential. These varying perspectives are useful in soothing fears, offering guidance and rooting out rumors and misinformation.
  2. Involving social scientists as soon as possible is paramount. Epidemics often sow seeds of resentment and suspicion within communities. As a result, these “seeds” often impede recovery and prevention efforts if allowed to grow. When scientists use their experience to analyze community structures, they can quickly identify areas of distrust. Their unique perspective on human behavior and cultural practices can then assist in developing solutions that are acceptable to all. Communities are then more likely to take ownership and come together to work towards strategies to slow the spread of the disease.
  3. Prioritizing the patient experience is mutually beneficial to the infected person as well as those providing the treatment. Stigma often follows survivors of Ebola with families and communities, with others expressing fear toward individuals even after they have recovered. Those recovering from COVID-19 often experience similar shaming. Conditions that result in trauma or embarrassment for the patient provide those who the virus may infect with a reason to ignore their treatment options. Performing care with respect, empathy and dignity offers a positive experience. This increases the chance that newly infected patients will seek help. Outreach in the form of education can reduce a community’s discontent. A better grasp of how the virus works and the recovery process provides understanding and relief.
  4. Deploying familial leaders for monitoring, early case detection, contact tracing, quarantine and follow-up is beneficial. As many see the leader in their family as a protector, this role is uniquely advantageous in increasing understanding of the disease itself. Family leaders are also in good positions to be the ones who take on the role of bolstering understanding of personal and family precautionary measures. An entire household working to slow the spread of COVID-19 can have a greater impact than individual effort.
  5. Taking action to ensure swift turnaround times for labs is important. One priority during the Ebola outbreak was getting lab results back to patients as quickly as possible. Primarily, this is to relieve any existing anxieties for the patient and the patient’s family. Additionally, quick turnaround allows for quick, public safety protocol execution to prevent the further spread of disease. This strategy is equally effective in the effort to slow the spread of COVID-19.

Even with one lethal and viral outbreak in the DRC finished, COVID-19 remains a very real and deadly threat. Through surviving Ebola, the DRC government grasped valuable, global lessons. The DRC government is using the tactics that proved successful in defeating the Ebola virus outbreak to slow the spread of COVID-19. As world leaders plan and devise strategies, the DRC’s successes serve as experienced examples in this globally critical situation with little precedent.

– Rachel Proctor
Photo: Flickr

Health Crisis in the Congo
The spread of a deadly disease is threatening The Democratic Republic of the Congo. This disease has led to a rise in unemployment, an uptake in crime, a decrease in the economic growth rate, as well as the illness and death of many Congolese people. Presently, the Congo is dealing with the aftermath of one of the most deadly outbreaks of Ebola yet, creating a certified health crisis in the Congo. Within the previous two years, records have determined that there have been over 3,000 Ebola cases and 2,000 resulting deaths. Additionally, the country’s deficit rating has been on a decline of over 2% in that time period.

Financial Troubles in the DRC

The Democratic Republic of the Congo also suffers from serious financial hardships. Over the years, things have improved somewhat for the region. The poverty rate has decreased slightly within the previous two decades. In addition, the overall economic growth rate had risen to 5.8% as of 2018. Despite these incremental increases, the Democratic Republic of the Congo ranks as one of the most impoverished countries, with its average citizens having to scrape by on as little as $1.90 per day.

Unfortunately, the positive economic factors occurred before the presence of this health crisis in the Congo. This caused the growth rate to drop back to 4.4% by 2019. The influx of disease within the region also stressed the economy, dropping it to the aforementioned deficit of 2%.

Violence in the DRC

Furthermore, the violence within the region has amplified the health crisis in the Congo. The Congo has a long history of violence with genocides occurring in both the 1800s and 1900s. Additionally, recent reports from the UN indicate that terrorist groups such as the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) and an estimation of 100 other armed groups are in the region.

This not only makes it difficult for the delivery of medical supplies to combat this crisis, but it also dissuades the assistance of foreign aid, with many countries believing that their assistance will only entangle them in conflict. The presence of these groups has continued to expand in the area, and other terrorist affiliates, including ISIS, are taking notice. In 2019, Congolese President Felix Tshisekedi speculated that ISIS may grab a significant foothold to invade the Nord Kivu within the Congo.

The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA)

The health crisis in the Congo forces responders to take action towards large-scale health care efforts. Not only has the Ministry of Health shown great awareness and urgency in addressing the needs of this crisis, but other non-governmental organizations have been making great strides to help as well.

The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA), in cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners, has created a treatment center in Beni to care for those speculated and confirmed to have Ebola. Preventative measures have received assistance through the provision of CUBE units and PPE by these organizations respectively. Additionally, WHO has provided over 1,600 individual responders to help combat the crisis.


The battle against the health crisis in the Congo still holds many challenges. This is the latest outbreak of the disease in the Congo overall, with the first signs of it occurring as early as the 1970s. It was only during the last outbreak that the country utilized the Erevbo vaccine in the disease’s prevention. Over 300,000 people received the vaccine with a 100% efficacy rate, which represents a huge milestone along with other treatment and preventative measures.

Looking Forward

In November 2020, The Ministry of Health declared this crisis over. The DRC itself expects to increase its economic growth rate by 4.5%, thereby nullifying the 2.2% drop that it has seen. Yet, this supposed end is not as substantial as it may seem.

The disease still exists within animal DNA spread across the region, and infectious strains are able to remain in recovering victims for months following infection. The Ministry’s own announcement of the 10th outbreak’s end was quickly rescheduled in June 2020, due to the reemergence of this latest Ebola outbreak.

When asked about the possibility of a resurgence, WHO responded that “a robust and coordinated surveillance system must be maintained to rapidly, detect, isolate, test and provide care for suspected cases.” More alarmingly, the organization expressed that without this effort, the spread of Ebola could have easily eclipsed the borders of the DRC and become a global pandemic.

How quickly a resurgence could occur is unknown. However, it is clear that without a continued and international effort geared toward Ebola’s prevention that the possibility of a health crisis in the Congo could become an all too tragic and preventable reality.

– Jacob Hurwitz
Photo: Flickr

Economy in the DRC
On June 25, 2020, the Ministry of Health of the Democratic Republic of Congo declared that the 10th Ebola outbreak was over in three provinces. With the rise of COVID-19 cases in the country, Ebola cases have also increased significantly as social distancing became difficult in medical facilities. As of August 13, 2020, there have been 86 confirmed Ebola cases in the northwest Equateur province. As of July 3, 2020, there were a total of 3,481 cases in the entire country. With Ebola and COVID-19 cases rising, medical costs, personnel and resources will heavily affect the economy as government officials scramble to contain the outbreaks. Here is some information about how Ebola has affected the economy in the DRC.

Keeping Inflation in Check

The recent outbreaks in the Equateur province are in remote areas, regions that are difficult for medical supplies to reach. The lack of access to these areas requires an increase in medical cost support, however, the DRC currently cannot shoulder the financial burden due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The economy in the DRC has been stressed because of COVID-19 costs and has been adjusting rates in order to control inflation. During the week of August 10, the Central Bank of DRC increased the key interest rate from 7.5% to 18.5% in order to prevent inflation. Despite the pandemic, Central Bank experts are expecting an increase in the economic growth of 2.4% at the end of 2020. This would be a downward trend from expectations at the beginning of 2020.

Tracking COVID-19 and Ebola

The DRC will only be able to contain both viruses if it can properly document progression and transmission. However, the DRC has more than 500 regions of difficult terrain that do not have access to basic resources. These remote, populous areas are unable to receive medical resources or be properly tracked. They have less access to electricity, medical personnel and resources. The economy in the DRC has exacerbated most funds in order to contain the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that almost 13,000 people have received vaccinations since the 11th Ebola outbreak that started near the end of July 2020.

International Aid

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is delivering an additional $7.5 million in humanitarian assistance to the DRC for Ebola. With these funds and WHO’s vaccine distribution procedures, testing facilities and medical personnel volunteers, the DRC will be able to more efficiently combat these pandemics.

Additionally, the DRC is receiving a $363 million loan from the International Monetary fund, $47 million from the World Bank and $40 million in emergency funds from the United Nations to strengthen the economy. These monetary aids will go toward the COVID-19 medical response, 11th Ebola outbreak vaccinations and necessary medical facilities.


Despite battling two pandemics at once, the DRC has maintained its composure and enacted the proper medical responses with the resources it has. The economy in the DRC has suffered because of the new Ebola outbreak. However, the DRC’s mission and determination to wipe out the last of the Ebola infections are unparalleled by previous responses. The DRC is on track to declaring another Ebola outbreak over.

Aria Ma
Photo: Flickr