Humanitarian Aid to Djibouti

Djibouti is a relatively small country in eastern Africa bordered by Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea. The majority of the population lives in urban areas, but this does not mean that the country is immune to problems such as poor nutrition, lack of education and poverty. The success of humanitarian aid to Djibouti has been in addressing these problems and more.

Children and Education

There has been a serious gap in education for females in Djibouti. The literacy rate in 2007 was 81.2 percent for males and only 63.8 percent for females. USAID has been working to specifically address this issue by doing work such as connecting girls with university mentors and revising textbooks using a gender-specific lens. In regard to more general education issues, USAID has also helped to develop a national teacher training plan that has trained more than 1,200 primary school teachers.

The United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative has also addressed these issues within Djibouti. Their Integrated Early Childhood Development program addresses girls’ education as well as childhood health with a focus on preventing HIV/AIDS and polio. They are also working to incorporate the principles of the Convention on the Rights of a Child into common practice in Djibouti.

Health and Medicine

USAID has also addressed health in Djibouti with a focus on problems related to tuberculosis, polio and HIV/AIDS. They have worked with the government of Djibouti to enhance the National Tuberculosis Program to maintain quality assurance and the management of multi-drug resistant cases. The organization has also supported the polio surveillance program to ensure the virus does not reenter through surrounding countries and to ensure childhood vaccination. Lastly, with the help of the government and other organizations, USAID has created a 1,600 square foot community health center which provides healthcare to over 30,000 truckers and other vulnerable persons to specifically address HIV/AIDS.

UNICEF also worked to address severe acute malnutrition within Djibouti. They provided treatment to 3,811 children under five and 29,513 children between six and 59 months in 2017. UNICEF was also pivotal in providing care for refugees in Djibouti.

Refugees and Displaced Persons

The success of humanitarian aid to Djibouti cannot be discussed without mentioning refugees and displaced persons. Djibouti has been known as a transit country for refugees fleeing conflict-stricken countries. As of October 2017, there were more than 27,000 refugees in the country, which is 3 percent of the total population. Some of these refugees have been in Djibouti for over 25 years. There are three refugee camps across the country, all of which depend on humanitarian aid.

More specifically, UNICEF has worked to aid refugee and migrant children. In 2017, they provided 632 children with child protective services and 139 children were involved in risk awareness activities. They also provided 4,396 children with access to schooling. The UNHCR also works to aid refugees in Djibouti with resettlement, ensuring refugee children have access to secondary education and providing food and water to refugee camps.

The success of humanitarian aid to Djibouti is an ongoing process. Drought and a lack of fertile land put pressure on the country as it continues to accept refugees while providing for native citizens. With the help of these international organizations and others, the hope is that Djibouti will continue to be a welcoming and safe country for all who live there.

– Megan Burtis

Photo: Flickr

sustainable agriculture in Djibouti
Sitting at a major waterway entrance to the gulf-states region, Djibouti is a critical gatekeeper in the international economy. However, despite this status, the country has an extremely low quality of life and agricultural opportunity. Sustainable agriculture in Djibouti is a long-term project, but thankfully one that is making major headway in the region.

There are several projects focused on sustainable agriculture in the area, including projects through the Djibouti Ministry of Agriculture, Water, Fisheries, Livestock and Marine Resources (MAWFLM), the World Bank Group and the African Development Bank Group. These projects are diverse and focus on everything from economic sustainability to increasing clean water supply, and will have both short-term capability and long-term effects on sustainable agriculture in Djibouti.


The Djibouti Ministry of Agriculture, Water, Fisheries, Livestock and Marine Resources

Sustainable agriculture in Djibouti is not a quick fix. According to a report from the MAWFLM, currently there is nearly no available land with access to clean water on which to farm. Since the landscape is so dry and barren, the MAWLFM has encouraged farmers to begin digging deeper wells so they can access clean underground reservoirs to irrigate their crops. The MAWFLM, in conjunction with the Japanese government, has been working to determine the most effective source of irrigation in the region.

During their research, MAWFLM discovered that shallow wells are likely going to be the most cost-effective form of irrigation, but that groundwater will be most useful for off-season irrigation. This research is imperative for increasing the number of agricultural products grown in Djibouti, and MAWFLM is continuing research in sustainable and economically efficient forms of water sustainability.


The World Bank Group

An integral part of growing a sustainable agriculture market in Djibouti is acquiring the ability to power any machinery needed. For the World Bank Group, electrification of rural areas was a major investment for Djibouti. The group began researching the best way to electrify Djibouti for farmers in 2017, so as a fairly new project, it hasn’t seen many results as of yet.

However, the plan is to invest nearly $23.4 million total in building not only facilities to increase power connectivity but to also teach technicians and electricians how to work with the new technology.

While it is yet to be determined how the World Bank Group’s electrification project will work, it’s a huge step toward modernization in Djibouti.


The African Development Bank Group

The African Development Bank Group is one of many groups working to improve infrastructure, but they stand out among the rest because they are based and run out of African nations. The group works to not only improve the quality of infrastructure in African countries, but to also advocate for long-term relief in many different areas of sustainability.

The Bank Group has advocated for Djibouti’s sustainable agriculture progress since 2004, and are continuing to lead in legislative advocacy for climate change and agriculture growth.

There are plenty of groups working to improve sustainable agriculture in Djibouti, and there are also other international organizations working to help provide for the many who are still affected by agriculture infertility in the area. Sustainable agriculture in Djibouti is a long-term project, but it is one that is being thoroughly pursued.

– Molly Atchison

Photo: Flickr

 DjiboutiChinese investment is driving a boom in infrastructure in Djibouti, but gaps still remain when it comes to providing essential services to the country’s most at-risk inhabitants.

Chinese investments promise to revitalize and expand shipping and transportation infrastructure in Djibouti, turning the small African nation of roughly a million people into a major trans-shipment hub on the Gulf of Aden. Chinese-backed projects include an electric train route to Ethiopia’s capital city and developing port facilities in the Port of Doraleh. Djibouti will also host China’s first overseas military base.

Despite these investments and the rapid growth of the nation’s economy over the past 20 years, some people are still left behind, citizens and refugees alike. Djibouti hosts more than 27,000 refugees from across the region, including those fleeing conflict in Ethiopia and Yemen. These refugees typically live in crowded camps with poor sanitation and little access to clean water.

Many citizens of Djibouti also lack reliable sanitation and access to water, particularly in rural areas. Nearly a quarter of the population still lives in extreme poverty, and 48 percent of working-age people are unemployed. The African Economic Outlook estimates that infrastructure development and economic changes driven by foreign investment may trickle down to impoverished citizens in the form of new jobs.

The international community beyond China has also taken an interest in infrastructure in Djibouti. While China’s interests chiefly lie in economic development, others are looking to more humanitarian issues such as education and food security. For example, the United Nations has been working through UNESCO on projects designed to bolster access to water, sanitation and education for both disadvantaged citizens and refugees. Their efforts have reached thousands, but thousands more continue to struggle every day.

The United States is on the ground in Djibouti as well, with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) working with many partners on multiple projects. USAID is active in improving access to education and its quality. USAID is also working with private and governmental partners to address the transmission of diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS along the developing Ethiopia/Djibouti transportation corridor.

However, as NPR reports, USAID funding is insecure under the current administration. The current budget proposal offered by President Trump’s administration would cut USAID and related programs by $2.2 billion. According to the New York Times, savings from these cuts will go to fund further investment in the military and domestic infrastructure. This move by the administration is unlikely to go unopposed. Doubts have already surfaced as to whether Congress will get on board with the administration’s proposals. Following a deal with Democrats, the administration’s budget isn’t likely to come up again for consideration until mid-December.

The government of Djibouti has its own ambitious plan to leverage infrastructure development in the mid- to long-term to raise the nation to “developing” status by 2035. In conjunction with humanitarian aid from abroad, this plan may see the fortunes of all Djiboutians rise like the expected ships at dock in the country’s expanding ports at high tide.

– Joel Dishman

Photo: Flickr

Hunger in DjiboutiDjibouti is a small country located on the northeast coast of Africa, adjacent to the Red Sea. The former French colony has been facing a severe food and water crisis for several decades. With a population of nearly 850,000, the country ranks 172nd out of 188 countries on the Human Development Index. Needless to say, Djibouti is high on the list of countries needing foreign aid in terms of clean water, food and the tools to become self-sufficient. Despite these priorities, hunger in Djibouti remains a serious issue.

Hunger in Djibouti can be chalked up to a few different causes. Djibouti relies heavily on trade, and because of this, it has a concentrated urban center in which trade can take place and shipments may be sent by rail, air and road. However, one-third of the population resides in small villages surrounding this center, making the transport of materials and supplies extremely difficult. Djibouti also suffers from poor conditions for farming such as drought, which means a large percentage of food sources must be imported, perpetuating the hunger deficit. Because Djibouti is reliant on nutritional imports, they are often at the mercy of market prices that their weak economy cannot always support. Even slight variations in food prices can have hugely detrimental consequences for families.

Fortunately, international programs are working toward a lasting solution to hunger in Djibouti. The World Food Programme has been working since the late 1970s to prioritize government support in stabilizing the hunger issue. Projects the World Food Programme has made headway on include providing nutrition to women and children, for refugees, and in schools. Action Against Hunger is also making progress with hunger in Djibouti. In 2016, the agency brought nutritional support to over 1,000 people, aided in water access for over 4,000 and supported economic self-sufficiency for nearly 650.

These agencies may not be eliminating hunger in Djibouti entirely, but they are working toward providing the people of Djibouti with lasting development plans that have the potential to become self-sustaining solutions.

Casey Hess

Photo: Flickr

Djibouti, a small country wedged in the horn of Africa has had a long history of economic instability and poverty. In the last decade, the country boasted some of its highest poverty rates, however, after 2007, the Djibouti poverty rate finally started to decline.

In 2007, when the Djibouti poverty rate saw its first significant spike downwards, it was recorded at 42 percent. Now, with the buffer from aid organizations and economic help from foreign financing and foreign direct investments, Djibouti has successfully lowered its poverty rate to about 18.8 percent. This rate is a tremendous achievement as the last two decades the poverty rate has fallen about 30 percent.

Following its 2007 rate, the Djibouti poverty rate had dropped to 23 percent by 2013 and then to about 18.8 percent currently.

In 2011, Djibouti’s population reached 820,000. Unfortunately, most of the population were living in extreme poverty. The common causes of poverty in the country were consecutive years of drought, loss of livestock, destruction of crops, malnutrition and unemployment.

The little resources the natives did have were stretched thin for the influx of refugees from neighboring Somalia, where refugees were estimated at 15,000 and growing.

With resources quickly being depleted and food and fuel prices rising, organizations such as the U.N., the World Food Programme, UNICEF, the Food and Agriculture Organisation and the World Health Organisation raised approximately $20 million for food, drought relief, water rehabilitation and mobile health units.

With poverty rates falling, Djibouti has seen increases in its GDP, industrial production growth rate and labor force. The GDP in 2016 was reported at $3.34 billion, an increase of $200 million from 2015, while the industrial production growth rate rose to 4.7 percent in 2016, ranking it 40 in the world.

Although the country still experiences a relatively high percentage of poverty and unemployment, the Djibouti poverty rate has successfully fallen and will continue to fall with help from foreign countries.

Amira Wynn

Why Is Djibouti PoorDjibouti is a small nation located in the Horn of Africa between Ethiopia, Somalia and Eritrea. The country faces a major poverty problem. About 41 percent of the population live in poverty and 23 percent live in extreme poverty. So why is Djibouti poor?

At the heart of Djibouti’s poverty is a lack of resources. The arid land makes Djibouti a poor place for farming. In fact, just 0.04 percent of land in Djibouti is arable; this is largely due to the harsh, dry climate. Drought is common and a huge threat to Djibouti’s rural population, which consists of nomadic farmers. The most recent drought saw malnutrition rates rise to 18 percent and in some areas, chronic malnutrition was as high as 30 percent.

These conditions have caused people to flee to urban areas like Djibouti’s capital city, which is home to over 75 percent of the population. Due to the unprofitable nature of farming in Djibouti, the country has to rely on foreign imported food to feed its people.

In addition to a poor agricultural sector, Djibouti also suffers from the stresses of war. In the 1990s, Djibouti experienced a civil war after President Hassan Gouled Aptidon transformed the government into a single party state and began granting privileges to the Issa clan. The Afar clan rebelled, which led to a three year civil war. By the time peace was finally attained, the war had caused significant damage to rural livestock production and infrastructure. Djibouti has spent a decade recovering from these damages.

Despite these great challenges, Djibouti’s future is looking brighter. The nation is gaining significant investment, primarily from China, in the hopes of making Djibouti a free trade zone. These investments have caused Djibouti’s GDP to grow and the country is expected to have its GDP growth rate continue to rise in the next two years. Consistent foreign investment in infrastructure and Djibouti government reforms to make the area more business friendly could be a significant boon to ending poverty in Djibouti. Hopefully with continued progress, we will no longer have to ask “Why is Djibouti poor?”

Carson Hughes

Photo: Flickr

common diseases in Djibouti
Two common diseases in Djibouti are HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The weak infrastructure of the national health system, equipment shortages and scarcity of human resources make treating and eradicating tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in Djibouti difficult.

The prevalence of tuberculosis in Djibouti is among the highest in the world with over 200 people reported as infected weekly. Tuberculosis is an airborne bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to malnutrition, diminished water resources and steadily increasing border movements there has been a rise in tuberculosis. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the diseases is compounded by the difficulty of access for numerous localities, lack of resources, limited capacities of mobile health units and the reduced mobility of the rural population.

HIV/AIDS is one of many common diseases in Djibouti. It is a sexually transmitted disease that destroys the immune system and eventually results in death without proper treatment. Djibouti has one of the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the world among young adults and the number of those infected only rises.

In 2015, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that over 9,000 people in Djibouti were living with HIV/AIDS. At least 8,000 are adults over the age 15. The epidemic has left an estimated 5,000 orphans up to the age of 17.

Over the years, the epidemic has continuously grown and affected the lives of not only those infected but their loved ones as well.

The government of Djibouti has declared a plan to invest in improved control of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. The HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plan and National Tuberculosis Strategic Plan will be implemented through public sector agencies, private and non-governmental organizations and community-based organizations.

The goal is to contain and reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS as well as tuberculosis and its impact on those infected and affected by the epidemic. They will work to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis by reducing transmission, expanding access to treatment, providing care and support.

HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis are two of the common diseases in Djibouti. Countless are suffering due to the impact of the diseases. The government of Djibouti has decided to implement efforts to contain the diseases and to lessen the impact on those not only infected but affected by the diseases.

Danyel Harrigan

Photo: Flickr

Refugees in Djibouti
The plight of refugees is of interest currently both in political and humanitarian terms. Refugees suffer a great uprooting from their homes, from their lifestyles and often experience a cultural shock at refugee camps. At their most vulnerable point, refugees must depend on stop-gap solutions to see them through their temporary and difficult living situations.

Djibouti is temporary shelter to thousands of refugees, as they search for a home beyond Djibouti. A tiny country on the Eastern coast of Africa, Djibouti is at the point where three countries meet: Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea. A narrow part of the Red Sea separates Djibouti from Yemen. Here are ten facts about refugees in Djibouti:

  1. Annually, 100,000 people pass through Djibouti. Such a large number of refugees pass through Djibouti because of its location adjacent to three countries.
  2. The refugees predominantly arrive from several places: Yemen, Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia. Of these, 55 percent of those who arrive at Djibouti are Yemeni. Yemeni and Ethiopian refugees get usually placed in Markazi, a refugee camp located near Obock, a port in the northern part of Djibouti. Somalis and Eritreans get often put in Ali Addeh and Holl Holl, other refugee camps, in the south of Djibouti.
  3. Approximately 19,636 Yemeni refugees and 5,100 Ethiopian refugees have arrived or passed through Djibouti since 2015. Around 70 percent of the refugees, including Somalis and Eritreans, are women and children.
  4. Yemeni refugees are fleeing south because of war, while Ethiopian refugees are fleeing north because of drought. A militant group, Houthi Shia, overthrew the Yemeni government in 2015. Consequently, Saudi Arabia began a bombing campaign in Yemen. Ethiopians fleeing north towards Yemen are sometimes not aware of the conflict when they reach Djibouti and head towards Yemen.
  5. Refugees enter Djibouti via bus or boat as the most common mode of transport. Ethiopian refugees also travel to Djibouti on foot, though crossing the desert surrounding Djibouti is dangerous since temperatures may reach 130 degrees. After their journey on foot, Ethiopian refugees use smugglers’ boats to reach Djibouti.
  6. Djibouti has a population of about one million people. Around 400,000 permanent residents live in slums near the edge of the capital, Djibouti City, with little access to necessities such as food and water. The sudden influx of refugees has created difficulties in resource allocation between long-time residents and refugees.
  7. Approximately 5,963 children in the country are suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM).
  8. Refugees predominantly live in three camps: Ali Addeh, Holl Holl and Markazi. Markazi alone is a temporary home to over 1,400 refugees as of February 2017. The living conditions in the camps are arduous. For example, in Markazi, refugees live in tents and have thin sleeping mats. The camps are fenced in to protect the refugees from wild animals, but snakes and scorpions often enter the camps. Refugees in Markazi are also concerned about sandstorms: in the past, sandstorms have blown over their tents.
  9. Around 74 percent of the refugee population lives on less than $3 per day. Despite the poor living conditions, refugees still attempt to educate their children by sending them to temporary schools in the camps.
  10. The influx of refugees has helped expand business networks for permanent residents of Djibouti, boosting the local economy. The refugees and residents of Djibouti have developed strong, friendly connections. The government of Djibouti echoes the positive reception that refugees have received, calling the refugees “our brothers and sisters.”

These facts about the refugees in Djibouti show that they are suffering because of bloody conflicts and harsh environmental conditions, circumstances beyond their control. Fortunately, Djibouti’s welcoming of refugees underscores the importance of being open to those impoverished by their circumstances.

Through examining even 10 facts about the refugees in Djibouti, the realization of how refugees can positively contribute to business and social networks is emphasized. Ultimately, communities must fuse together to advocate for solutions to poverty.

Smriti Krishnan

Photo: Google

Djibouti is a small country on the Horn of Africa, in which more than 23 percent of the population lives in extreme poverty. The prevalence of extreme poverty in the Republic of Djibouti is more than seven times higher in rural areas than in the capital, despite rural inhabitants only comprising one-fourth of the total population. These disparities result in a large prevalence of hunger in Djibouti.

An Absence of Agriculture

While a majority of civil strife in Djibouti has been resolved since 2001, a large proportion of the population still experiences the effects of the former social instability. During the recovery period, the rural population often depended almost entirely on emergency food aid, with little emphasis on rebuilding infrastructure. Poor rural Djiboutians lack access to reliable financial services, which are needed for more lucrative business opportunities outside the agricultural field.

With less than 1,000 square kilometers suitable for farming,  Djibouti has a chronic food deficit. Agricultural production accounts for only three percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), so Djibouti imports 90 percent of its food commodities.

This reliance means it is highly sensitive to external economic disruptions and natural disasters such as floods and droughts. Any variation in the international prices has a considerable impact on the poorest segment of the population, who spend 77 percent of their household budget on imported food.

Lack of access to affordable food correlates with high rates of malnutrition in Djiboutian children, currently affecting 29.7 percent of children under five.

Collaborative Solutions

The World Bank’s 2014-2017 Country Partnership Strategy marks a collaboration between the International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The strategy supports the government’s goal to reduce extreme poverty by 2035. The strategy will also build the infrastructure to benefit all members of the population through harnessing the country’s human and economic potential by reducing vulnerability and strengthening the business environment.

By improving long-term infrastructure and opening markets for poor rural communities, rural citizens may eventually escape poverty and subsequently hunger in Djibouti.

Casie Wilson

Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Djibouti
The small nation of Djibouti, located in the Horn of Africa, is only about 9,000 square miles and has a small population of about 820,000 people. Currently, poverty in Djibouti persists as a major problem with more than 23 percent of those 820,000 living in conditions described as extreme poverty.

Consistent food deficits caused by Djibouti’s harsh climate make agriculture harder here than in other areas of the continent. This creates a dependence on imports to feed the population and leaves the country especially disadvantaged by drought, floods and other natural disasters. Droughts leave an exceptionally long-lasting impact in the form of crop destruction and loss of livestock. In 2011, the U.N. reported that Djibouti’s ranchers lost 70-80 percent of their livestock during a period in which food prices also rose 50 percent.

These increasing rates of malnourishment have led many to migrate away from rural areas to the capital in search of work. Today around two-thirds of the population is condensed in Djibouti City, leaving a small percentage to farm. These factors culminate into mass poverty in Djibouti and need direct solutions as well as continued foreign support to combat. Many in Djibouti must concentrate what little income they earn towards food and basic survival at the expense of health and education. Those in the Garabtisan Village must walk 23 kilometers just to fetch water for the village, many surviving on 40 liters for up to three days at a time.

Despite its plethora of issues and dependence on foreign aid, Djibouti’s geographical position as a trade gateway to Ethiopia has spurred some economic opportunities. The International Monetary Fund estimates that real GDP increased during 2015-2016 by around 6.5 percent, but continued support is needed to continue this positive trend into the future. Efficient infrastructure development, political stability, and natural disaster relief remain crucial to Djibouti’s continued growth. Suffering has been alleviated by efforts such as the U.N. raising $17.4 million in response to the 2011 drought, the World Food Programme providing emergency food aid to 61,000 rural farmers and $1 million from UNICEF for Djibouti’s children.

Continued economic growth may provide more paths out of poverty and consistent foreign assistance from countries around the world can, one day, end poverty in Djibouti. Reaching out to U.S. members of Congress for continued USAID support can go a long way in giving millions the opportunities needed to become self-sufficient. Each and every person in the United States possesses the power to speak out for what matters, ending human suffering around the globe.

Aaron Walsh

Photo: Flickr