Human Trafficking in Denmark
Women will often go to extreme lengths to find stability for themselves and their families. To find this stability, many leave their homes in search of better jobs. Unfortunately, this makes them vulnerable to human trafficking with traffickers potentially tricking them into doing sex work that can be difficult to escape. Organizations such as the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA) are fighting to reduce the amount of human trafficking in Denmark.

Women as Victims

Denmark is a trafficking destination. According to Newsroom, “The total number of trafficking victims identified in the period 2016-2019 was 380, including 28 children. The most frequent form of exploitation remains sexual exploitation, followed by labor exploitation and forced criminality.”

Many trafficking victims are women. According to the European Commission, “women make up the largest share of identified victims of trafficking in Denmark with a total of 547 persons (94%). Male victims of trafficking account for 6% of the total number from 2007 to 2016.”

The Problem

Migrant women come from various parts of the world such as Thailand, Eastern Europe and Nigeria before settling in Denmark after traffickers promise them employment with quality pay. However, many of these women end up in sex work by force. Additionally, many end up on the streets where they face violence and stress due to the cost of living in Denmark.

Kira West of Open Democracy said that “We have heard examples of family houses being burnt down or family members being kidnapped. Many of them are also suffering from the effects of life as undocumented migrant women in rough, street-based environments where they are subject to exploitation, violence and rape.”

Female trafficking victims not only stress about paying off their debts but also live in fear that the police will catch them. As a result, female trafficking victims in Denmark rarely report crimes. West said that “Irrespective of whether or not they have the right papers, these women have a right to protection. They should be able to report perpetrators without fearing deportation.”

Making a Change

GRETA is an organization that ensures trafficked victims have access to compensation including breaking down their cases and reviewing the eligibility criteria for claiming their compensation. This organization argues that because most victims of trafficking are migrants that they should receive asylum in Denmark. “From 2007-2016 a sum of 632 people are known to be victims of human trafficking in Denmark. Of those 632 people trafficked in Denmark a total of 517 people were being trafficked for prostitution.”

From 2016-2019, GRETA aided in nine court rulings in four different cases resulting in the conviction of 23 persons for human trafficking offenses.

GRETA has urged Denmark to review and grant residence permits to victims of trafficking as well as fund human and financial resources to protect them. In its third report, GRETA detailed exactly how trafficked victims’ cases should play out to guarantee justice in Denmark. GRETA has noted that Denmark has been implementing the establishment of a national referral system including five regional groups. It also created a website and hotline for trafficked victims which includes information in seven languages.

Making it Right

Victims are now stepping forward. The women who end up as trafficking victims do so because they want to build better lives for themselves. They live a life of violence and fear because of their citizenship status and other fake documentation. Many have had enough and are choosing to fight for their freedom. Little by little, many are reclaiming their lives once again.

Maria Garcia
Photo: Flickr

Greenland's Foreign Aid
Many countries around the world benefit from foreign aid, but few rely on it for their livelihood. Greenland is one of the few countries that would struggle to exist at all without it, as Greenland’s foreign aid is essential to its economy. Each year, Denmark, Greenland’s former colonial ruler, gives the island nation about $591 million in subsidies. That represents about 60% of the Greenlandic government’s budget and comes to more than $10,000 for every person living in Greenland. The subsidy, however, is not the cure-all Denmark might hope it to be.

Greenland’s Foreign Aid and Social World

Greenland is a land of contradictions. It is the largest island in the world, yet has a population of fewer than 60,000 people. Its average income is about $33,000, placing it far above the international average, yet Greenland also suffers from a suicide rate seven times higher than in the United States, and a poverty rate of 16.2% as of 2015. Traditional practices remain the norm in many parts of the country. Fishing accounts for 90% of Greenland’s exports, and dog sleds are still a common sight in the island’s undeveloped interior.

How can Greenland receive so much aid and still suffer from such social ills? Part of the answer lies in international politics. Although Greenland is nominally independent, many of its politics are still under the control of Denmark. Worried about losing influence in Greenland, Denmark has often blocked other countries’ efforts to invest in Greenland.

For example, Denmark raised objections to a $12.1 million aid package to Greenland from the U.S. in 2020. While politicians raised some valid concerns about the package (particularly in light of President Trump’s tactless 2019 offer to buy Greenland from Denmark), the fact remains that foreign investment would almost certainly enrich Greenlanders. This would be especially relevant if Greenlanders, rather than Danes, were the ones to make decisions about foreign aid.

Potential Wealth in Greenland

On the other hand, Greenland itself enjoys huge sources of potential wealth. The island is strategically located in the arctic region. Greenland also possesses valuable mineral deposits in its interior, which global warming will eventually uncover. Unfortunately, Denmark’s reluctance to permit foreign aid, and a lack of local capital, have prevented Greenland from taking advantage of these resources.

Greenland’s dependence on Danish money is a major source of instability for the country. Were the Danish government to change its policy, Greenland’s fragile economy would collapse. Greenland’s reliance on fish also creates uncertainty, since fish prices tend to fluctuate quickly. Economic development, as well as investment from a variety of countries, would remove much of the country’s economic uncertainty.

The goal of foreign investment should be to make countries prosperous and, eventually, self-sufficient. Greenland, however, shows few signs of becoming more economically independent from Denmark. Greenland’s GDP has grown very slowly and actually shrank between 2013 and 2014, despite Denmark’s funding. Danish aid to Greenland seems to have become an absent-minded gift, rather than an aid program with a clear purpose and goals.

Consequences of Denmark’s Aid

If Denmark sticks to the status quo of offering aid but preventing others from doing the same, Greenland will continue to suffer from its high poverty rate. Denmark will still have to pay huge sums of cash to keep the Greenlandic economy afloat.

However, if Denmark were to permit more investment in Greenland and put more emphasis on helping Greenland achieve self-sufficiency, Greenland would become wealthier and its economy would be more stable. This would in turn benefit Denmark because Greenland would eventually no longer need so much financial support. Whatever Greenland’s foreign aid future holds, it seems clear that it can do better than the status quo.

– Thomas Brodey
Photo: Flickr

Mental Health in Denmark
Every year on March 20, the United Nations Sustainable Solutions Network publishes the World Happiness Report. The report assesses the state of happiness in 156 countries, acquiring data through quantitative surveys and research. The report considers GDP per capita, life expectancy, social support, trust and corruption, perceived freedom to make life decisions and generosity. Based on these metrics, Denmark has consistently ranked in the top 10 happiest countries in the world for the last nine years. Naturally, this has prompted the world to take a closer look at what contributes to such positive mental health in Denmark.

Robust Social Security and Social Welfare

It is no secret that the Danish income tax rate is one of the highest in the world. The income tax rate for the average Dane earning $43,000 is 45% and increases to 52% for those earning $67,000 or more. However, a Gallup survey conducted in 2014 found that almost 90% of Danes are happy to pay their taxes. This is because the high tax rate translates into improved societal welfare. For instance, Denmark provides free healthcare to all and education is also free, even at the tertiary level.

The Importance of a Work-life Balance

The Danes recognize that time affluence is a vital prerequisite for happiness. As such, Danes generally only work an average of 37 hours spread across five days. This arrangement provides them with ample leisure time to pursue hobbies or spend time with friends and family. Moreover, many treat mental health in Denmark with the same seriousness as physiological health in the workplace. Employees take “stress leave” to avoid burnout and people impacted by job losses receive generous unemployment benefits from the government.

The Philosophy of Hygge

The most common translation of hygge (pronounced hoo-ga) is a sense of coziness or comfort. It is the ethos of the Danish lifestyle and emphasizes taking pleasure in simple things. During the bleak winters, the Danes take up hygge practices such as playing a board game with friends or reading a book with a cup of hot chocolate. According to A.K. Pradeep, author of “The Buying Brain,” hygge encourages activities that minimize stress and create comfort to boost serotonin production. Consequently, the incorporation of hygge into everyday life reduces stress levels and helps with depression. This greatly improves the quality of mental health in Denmark.

Tackling Mental Health Issues in Denmark

By no means should one construe these aspects of life in Denmark as an absence of mental health issues. In fact, estimates suggest that 38% of Danish women and 32% of Danish men will receive professional help for mental health issues at some moment in their lifetime. While the causes for suicide and mental health illnesses in Denmark are nuanced, with regard to the mental health of young people, the high demands and pressures of today’s world contribute to anxiety and depression.

Furthermore, the suicide rate in Denmark has now plateaued at 11.4 per 100,000 since 2007. This translates to an average of 600 suicides per year, with experts in suicidal behavior acknowledging the government’s ability to do more to address the issue.

However, Denmark is not the only Nordic country celebrated for the happiness of its citizens yet struggling to make further inroads into suicide prevention. For example, in Finland, an estimated 750 Finns commit suicide every year. This is despite extensive national suicide strategies that have managed to bring down the suicide rate by more than 50% in the last 30 years.

Creating Change

Fortunately, organizations have met these staggering statistics with a determination to improve the mental health situation in Denmark. One such organization is ONE OF US. Founded in 2011, ONE OF US aims to eliminate the stigma surrounding mental health in Denmark, addressing social exclusion and encouraging individuals to seek treatment. The organization accomplishes this through its nationwide campaigns.

These efforts consist of activities and workshops to educate the public on mental health issues. Workshops also aim to teach individuals how to support people struggling with mental illness. For instance, with the youth as one of its focus areas, the organization makes presentations at educational institutions with a youth ambassador. The ambassador shares his/her experience with mental health issues and gives guidance on how to overcome these hurdles.

Although happiness is a factor that fluctuates, Denmark does its best to prioritize the integral aspects that contribute to overall happiness. The happiness rate in Denmark is a significant source of pride for former Danish Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen who believes in a model of “governance for happiness,” especially during trying times. Mental health in Denmark plays an important role in overall happiness and the country aims to continue prioritizing it.

Vyas Nageswaran
Photo: Flickr

Denmark's Foreign Aid
When it comes to foreign aid, one of the most widely-commended countries is the small nation of Denmark. The Danes are well-known for their generous aid spending and both donor and recipient nations recognize Denmark as a highly effective partner in the fight against global poverty. Here are five facts about Denmark’s foreign aid.

5 Facts About Denmark’s Foreign Aid

  1. Denmark is a world leader in foreign aid spending. In 2019, Denmark spent $2.55 billion on foreign aid, a seemingly small figure compared to the $34.62 billion the United States spent, but Denmark’s population is only about 1.76% that of the U.S. When adjusted for population, Denmark’s foreign aid totals $447 per-capita, much higher than the United States’ $95 per-capita. In fact, Denmark is the fourth-highest per-capita spender of all OECD countries after Norway, Sweden and Luxembourg.
  2. Denmark has consistently been a world leader since the 1970s. The United Nations uses foreign aid as a percentage of Gross National Income to measure a country’s proportional spending, and Denmark is one of the few countries that has met or exceeded the U.N.’s target of 0.7% of GNI since 1978. Denmark’s foreign aid currently amounts to 0.71% of its GNI, trailing only Luxembourg, Norway and Sweden among OECD countries. However, for a brief period during the 1990s, Denmark actually increased this number to over 1%.
  3. Low-and-middle-income countries rate Denmark high for usefulness, influence and helpfulness in foreign aid. In a new study that AidData conducted, leaders from 40 aid-receiving nations ranked Denmark as a top development partner. Besides meeting the U.N.’s foreign aid target, Denmark scored second among all countries for its usefulness regarding policy advice, second for its influence in setting agendas and first for its helpfulness regarding reform implementation. Since 2009, these reforms have included promoting greater private sector expansion and focusing on social progress as a catalyst for economic growth. Denmark’s long-term commitments to implementing such policies in a small number of prioritized nations have proven to be highly effective in reducing extreme poverty.
  4. Denmark manages its foreign aid spending and implementation through DANIDA, the Danish International Development Agency. DANIDA’s top priorities for 2020 are advancing human rights and equality, developing sustainable green growth, providing humane asylum for displaced people and maintaining international cooperation in all global efforts. Denmark’s foreign aid reaches over 70 low-and-middle-income countries, but those of the highest urgency include Afghanistan, Somalia and Niger. Efforts in Afghanistan largely center around education as Danish aid provides teacher education, updated textbooks and curriculum development. In Somalia, DANIDA works to develop safety nets, human rights advancements and strengthen national and local governance. Niger receives policy advice on properly handling the irregular number of migrants in the country as well as basic delivery of living essentials to impoverished children.
  5. Denmark can still improve. While the country is one of only six to meet the U.N.’s target of 0.7% GNI in 2019 with 0.71%, this is a substantial drop from 2015 when Denmark spent 0.85% of GNI on foreign aid. Addressing this cutback, which was largely due to increased spending on refugees within the country, should be a top concern. Reverting back to 2015’s percentage or higher is a positive step Denmark can take, and such a move is all the more likely now as Denmark’s 2019 net migration was negative for the first time in almost a decade. As the country spends less on internal migrants, more of the Danish budget is available to supplement the once-highly-robust foreign aid sector.

One of the most effective ways developed governments can help to improve conditions in poverty-stricken nations is by properly funding and managing healthy foreign aid budgets. By taking Denmark’s example, more countries should seek to meet the U.N.’s 0.7% GNI target and implement this aid in a manner that best fits the needs of impoverished individuals in low-income countries.

– Calvin Melloh
Photo: Flickr

Most Generous Donor Countries
According to the Principled Aid Index, a study by OECD’s DAC (Development Assistance Committee), the most generous donor countries tend to be the most humble and modest about the help they provide to the world’s poor. Amongst DAC’s 30 member countries, the four most generous are Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. All exceeded the United Nation’s recommended level of donating 0.7% of Gross National Income to foreign aid. How are those four most generous and principled aid donors using their international funds to help the world’s poor?

Luxembourg

Luxembourg tops the list of most generous donor countries with 1.05% of its Gross National Income going to foreign aid. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a partner to nine developing countries across Africa, the United States and Asia, and is a member of the International Aid Transparency Initiative.

Luxembourg’s foreign aid strategy, developed through Luxembourg Development Cooperation Agency, focuses on improving local development through providing education and employment, digitalizing healthcare and funding renewable energy. Its main areas of work have been Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, Mali, Niger, Senegal, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Laos, Mongolia, Myanmar and Vietnam.

Norway

The second country on the list of most generous donor countries is Norway. Norway spends on average NOK 39 billion ($4.3 billion) on foreign aid per year. Apart from exceeding the United Nations’ 0.7% target, Norway has only failed to donate over 1% of its Gross National Income to international humanitarian aid once since 2013. In 2020, Norway donated 1.02%.

The Norwegian government has five focus areas of appointing its foreign aid funds – education, health, private-sector development, environmental challenges and humanitarian assistance. It also focuses heavily on development, whether through human rights, gender equality, the environment or the fight against corruption. Its most prioritized areas of work, and the recipients of its biggest donations, are mostly countries in the SWANA region.

Norway is currently focusing on development cooperation in Colombia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Tanzania and Uganda. It is also focusing on conflict prevention in Afghanistan, Malawi, Niger, Palestine, Somalia and South Sudan.

Norway has announced that in the year 2021, it will put a significant focus on international humanitarian assistance and global health, and thus will donate nearly NOK 10 billion to both of the causes. Expectations have determined that its overall 2021 foreign aid budget will reach NOK 38.1 billion ($4.7 billion.) At the beginning of 2021, Norway joined COVAX. COVAX is an international collaboration within developed countries aiming to bring COVID-19 vaccines to low-income countries. Norway has committed itself to the redistribution of its surplus vaccine doses to poorer countries in the program.

Sweden

Although Sweden is the sixth country on the DAC list, it is actually the third most generous donor based on the proportion of its foreign aid donations to the size of its economy. Sweden has exceeded the United Nation’s 0.7% target every year since 1975. In addition, it has kept the long-term commitment of donating at least 1% since 2008. In 2020, the Swedish government ensured its COVID-19 response will not affect its development funding during the pandemic.

The main national body acting on foreign aid donations is the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). SIDA’s Aid Policy Framework is based on the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and focuses on eight main areas – human rights and democracy, gender equality, environment and environmental challenges, peace and security, inclusive economic development, migration, health equity and education. SIDA has 35 partner countries, most of them in sub-Saharan Africa. Sweden’s biggest donations go to Tanzania, Afghanistan and Mozambique. However, SIDA also works in Palestine, South Sudan, Somalia and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Sweden has been very open about its strong commitment to international development cooperation. One of the central points of its foreign development policy has been gender equality and women’s empowerment. In 2014, Sweden was the first country to implement Feminist Foreign Policy, which ensures fundamental rights, peace, security and opportunities for sustainable development for women and girls in developing countries – such as cash grants supporting female-led households in Tanzania, which Sweden has been providing since 2016. Furthermore, a large part of Sweden’s funding between 2014 and 2017 went towards its efforts to domestically host refugees. Later in 2019, it also created an emergency fund for Ethiopian refugees fleeing to Sudan. As part of Sweden’s 2021 budget plan, the country has a commitment to spending $6 billion USD on foreign humanitarian aid.

Denmark

According to the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Denmark has donated 0.71% of its Gross National Income to foreign aid – $2.55 billion – in 2020. The main sectors on the Danish foreign aid agenda are ensuring a secure transition to migrants by providing them with education and employment opportunities. Denmark also works to promote democracy and equal human rights, as well as implementing inclusive and sustainable development.

Most of the aid goes to “priority countries” like Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Mali, Myanmar, Palestine, Somalia, Tanzania and Uganda. Denmark also donates significant funds to Indonesia, Pakistan, South Africa, Colombia, China, Mexico, Turkey and Ukraine. All of Denmark’s humanitarianism is a part of its new strategy for development and humanitarian action called “The World 2030.”

Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Luxembourg’s generosity to other countries has had a multitude of benefits. From helping improve education to aiding countries’ healthcare systems or women’s rights, these most generous donor countries are making a positive impact across the world.

– Natalia Barszcz
Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Denmark
When most people picture poverty, they do not usually imagine Denmark. Denmark is an affluent, Scandinavian country renowned for its welfare state. Most Danish people and many people worldwide see Denmark as a model society to look to when dealing with poverty and creating a more egalitarian society. Yet, despite the programs in place to support its citizens, poverty in Denmark is still a problem. In a worrying trend, levels of poverty and inequality have been steadily rising in the last two decades.

A report from the Danish National Center for Social Research (SFI) says that the number of homeless people in Denmark has increased by 23% between 2009 and 2015. In 2015, estimates determined that there were 6,138 homeless people throughout the country, with the increase in homelessness greatest in people aged 25 to 29.

Changes to Welfare State Benefits

So, why are things suddenly changing in Denmark? The country still has a welfare state, so why do people lack financial security or even homes? The answer lies in reductions to social assistance programs that began in 2002 and left many Danes behind.

In 2002, the Liberal-Conservative government enacted changes, cutting significant social assistance benefits for specific groups, such as refugees, new immigrants and ethnic minorities. It pitched these changes as a part of immigration policy reform. However, these changes have had lasting impacts on the welfare system and on poverty in Denmark as a whole. The government justified the cuts to social assistance as necessary to increase immigrants’ and refugees’ incentive to find work.

Many within Denmark have seen the intention behind these reductions as a power play to show “outsiders” in Denmark that they would not receive equal treatment until they actively earned the right through work. Denmark has been a historically isolated and homogeneous society. Denmark’s coming to terms with newcomers has been, and continues to be, wrought with debate as to whether or not “foreigners” deserve to be a part of the welfare state. Refugees have fled to Denmark by the thousands, the numbers climbing from around 3,000 in 2011 to a peak of over 17,000 in 2015, before decreasing steadily each year afterward.

Who Does Poverty Affect?

There is a noticeable divide between the haves and the have nots in Danish society. Most Danes are well-off, do not struggle financially and have the assurance that their taxes will pay for their children’s higher education, most of their medical expenses and other basic necessities. Meanwhile, the poor are marginalized.

Poverty among some of the most vulnerable members of Danish society has risen. The makeup of the poor is mostly single mothers and families composed of refugees and immigrants. In fact, one-fifth of all homeless people are foreigners. Additionally, a whopping four out five homeless people have mental health or dependency issues and are not getting the help that they desperately need.

Poverty in Danish children provides many of the most devastating figures of poverty in Denmark. Child poverty increases by thousands every year. By 2017, there were about 64,500 children living in poverty. Not only are the children in poverty suffering, but childhood poverty has lasting effects that make it difficult for poor Danish children to prosper as adults. Studies confirm that Danish children who grow up in poverty will likely achieve less education. Moreover, they might receive a lower wage when they themselves enter the Danish job market. Child poverty in Denmark not only hurts Danish children in the present but Danish society in the future. Yet, many Danes continue to tout their welfare system without examining what needs fixing.

Falling Short

Though Denmark has lower levels of poverty than many other countries, its poverty demographic is changing and has been for the last two decades. These numbers call into question Denmark’s worldwide renown as an inclusive and dependable welfare state, and as a model that other nations should follow. Though most Danish politicians across party lines claim to support the welfare system, many support cuts to social assistance benefits. The leader of the Alternative Welfare Commission, Per Shulz Jorgensen claimed that “the welfare society is not living up to its own principles,” and as poverty climbs in the Danish welfare state, it would seem that he is right.

Caritas Denmark

The good news is that many NGOs have been taking action to help fight poverty in Denmark. Caritas Denmark has sought to empower poor people both in Denmark and around the world, running programs and giving relief to refugees worldwide. It is sending aid to communities that the Syrian civil war has affected as many refugees have fled from Syria to Denmark. Estimates have determined that it will provide health care and support to 12,886 people.

At home, Caritas Denmark runs programs focused on providing training to the poor and supporting integration projects for refugees in Denmark, as well as trying to prevent domestic disputes. It is addressing these issues to ensure that everyone has an equal chance of employment and housing, and an escape from poverty. As an affiliate of the Catholic Church of Denmark, Caritas Denmark works with 42 parishes and about 40,000 Catholics annually in Denmark. More work is necessary, but there are many Danes still fighting against poverty, both at its roots in the refugee crisis and at home through training and social programs for the poor.

Though Denmark has held on tightly to its status as one of the happiest countries on earth, poverty in Denmark must be reckoned with. Danish people have begun to admit that poverty is a growing issue within Denmark, with a 2008 poll finding that 59% of Danes polled believed the wealth gap between well-off Danes and Danes in poverty required reducing. Nonprofits, advocacy groups and the hope of possible government action to support the vulnerable and the poor show that there is still a possibility of curbing the growth of poverty in Denmark. This way, Denmark can aspire to be the happiest country on earth for all Danes.

– Julia Ortiz
Photo: Flickr

Although Denmark is known for its strong welfare state, homelessness is still a prevalent problem. The small country has taken steps to reduce the number of people that are homeless and have shared these steps with other European countries. However, there are still many ways that the country can continue to reduce its homeless population.

Homelessness in Denmark

  1. Homelessness in Denmark is growing. Approximately 0.12% of the Danish population suffers from acute homelessness and homelessness has increased over the past decade by 33%. The majority of those who are homeless are in Copenhagen.
  2. Denmark pioneered a program to end homelessness. From 2009 to 2013, the Danish Government developed a homelessness strategy called Housing First with four main goals. The goals were; no person should live a life on the street, young people should have an alternative solution to homeless hostels; a stay in a care home or shelter should last no longer than 3-4 months, those who can move out on their own with the necessary support should; and prison releases and hospital discharges should only happen when there is an accommodation solution in place.
  3. Homelessness in Copenhagen is de facto illegal. Denmark has not outlawed homelessness per se, but it has banned ‘insecurity creating camps’. However, Danish law enforcement has taken this to mean that homeless people create insecurity for those around them; rather than focusing on the insecurity homeless people might face they often give the homeless large fines. Jurist Maja Løvbjerg Hansen states that the homeless “may be in a hostel or shelter if they happen to stay there. They may be doing some shopping. They may be going to a doctor or a nurse. If they have work, they can do their job, and if they are in treatment for taking drugs or alcohol, they can come to town for the relevant meetings. But the ban means that they are not allowed to stay on the street or walk around without a purpose in the city – the zone – that they are banned from.”
  4. Youth are largely affected by homelessness. Over one-third of those who are homeless are under 30 and struggle to rise out of poverty because of current economic instability. In many cases, those that are homeless have mental illnesses or drug addictions, which requires additional assistance. Additionally, about 5% of all Danish children will be placed in out-of-home care. According to the Danish Center for Social Science Research, around 40% of these children will become homeless.
  5. Denmark has a newspaper produced by formerly homeless people. Hus Forbi was founded in August 1996 to give a voice to the homeless, which are typically excluded from the conversation surrounding Dutch politics. Homeless people also sell the newspaper as a legal way to make money.

Several NGOs help the Danish homeless population. The Alliance, A Home for All advocates for homeless people and works to create solutions for homeless people. Project UDENFOR also works to help the homeless by participating in on-the-street based work and through spreading knowledge collected through research. Additionally, a large number of homeless shelters throughout Denmark are operated by a number of NGOs to fill in the gaps that the Danish welfare state cannot cover.

– Julia Canzano

Photo: BigFoto

Sanitation in Denmark
Access to sanitation services is often restricted by socioeconomic status, even in the most developed countries in the world. Fortunately, Denmark is an example of a country that found ways to overcome the struggle for a clean environment among impoverished communities. Denmark uses different teams of environmental experts, new technologies and a preventative approach to pollution. This has led to success in providing sanitation and clean water to its citizens. Here are eight facts about sanitation in Denmark.

8 Facts About Sanitation in Denmark

  1. Poverty and sanitation are directly related. Denmark has a poverty rate of about 0.20%. Poverty can be linked to sanitation because lower-income means fewer options for water sources and hygiene products. A lower-income family living in an area with unclean water may not be able to afford bottled water. However, as described below, Denmark has taken steps to ensure that all of its citizens have access to clean water and sanitation.
  2. It is common to drink tap water in Denmark. Citizens of Denmark have no qualms about drinking straight out of their own sinks because the water is clean and trustworthy. Morten Kabell, Mayor of Technical and Environmental Affairs, even argues that public drinking water in Denmark is considered cleaner than bottled water. This reduces major costs to families who would otherwise need to buy their own water, which can trap someone in the cycle of poverty.
  3. Clean water became a cultural priority in the 1970s. Despite its current successes, Denmark’s history regarding clean water is not perfect. Before the 1970s, citizens of Copenhagen were often exposed to polluted water, which was unsafe for drinking and swimming. In 1971, Denmark established the Environmental Ministry, whose main task was to reduce pollution. The Ministry met with representatives from other countries the following year where they drew up the Stockholm Declaration. It is the first document recognizing access to a clean environment as a fundamental human right. Now, 50 years later, Copenhagen citizens of all socioeconomic statuses have access to clean resources.
  4. Denmark uses a prevention model, rather than a treatment model. When it comes to protecting its citizens from contamination by toxic substances, the Danish EPA’s policy is based on prevention instead of treatment. This means that while Denmark possesses the ability to monitor and decontaminate various forms of matter, its primary goal is to prevent contamination in the first place by reducing emissions of air pollutants and pollution of their water supply. As a result, low income communities are less likely to endure the negative effects of pollution. This allows them a more equal chance to climb the socioeconomic ladder.
  5. A majority of the population in Copenhagen sorts some types of waste. The latest reports on Copenhagen’s biowaste report that about 78% of residents in Copenhagen are willing to sort their biowaste. Beyond just recycling versus trash, the sorting system in Copenhagen often includes more detailed subcategories. The author of The Copenhagen Tales reported that it is typical for apartment buildings to have four categories for waste: paper, plastic, biodegradable and residual. Sorting biowaste is the norm in Copenhagen for citizens of all socioeconomic backgrounds. There is no clear link between income and recycling habits.
  6. Denmark hopes to recycle 70% of all waste by the year 2024. Denmark produces the most municipal waste (everyday trash) per person when compared to other European countries. However, in 2015, Denmark announced its plan to recycle 70% of all waste produced by 2024. While this is ambitious, the country has already begun using waste for more beneficial and sanitary purposes. For example, converting waste into fertilizer alternatives. This is important for the economy because many Danish people work in agriculture. In addition, Danish people who work in agriculture must expose themselves to potentially hazardous substances (like fertilizer) to make a living. Thus, the conversion of waste to fertilizer can decrease pollutant exposure in more vulnerable communities.
  7. All of the Danish population has access to sanitation services. According to a report from 2018, 100% of the people in Denmark use safely-managed sanitation services. This includes access to soap, clean water and a bath or shower. Because of its successes, Denmark’s poorer populations have a better chance of thriving.
  8. Denmark helps other countries with their sanitation problems. As Denmark has a reputation for its clean water access, countries have turned to Denmark for help. South Africa, for example, turned to Denmark during severe water shortages in 2015. Clean water was being wasted in many homes due to burst pipes and other structural issues, especially among lower-income communities. As a result, South Africa’s Water and Sanitation Minister met with Denmark’s Environment and Food Production Minister to solve the problem together. The two countries continue to cooperate in an effort to manage water and sanitation.

The triumphs of sanitation in Denmark are one example of how taking care of basic needs can improve the lives of people across the socioeconomic spectrum. With cleaner water, air and other resources, impoverished people have a better chance of avoiding disease, death, injury and developmental problems that perpetuate the cycle of poverty. The successes of sanitation in Denmark overlap with their economical successes and their hope for the future.

Levi Reyes
Photo: Flickr

Seven Facts about Healthcare in Denmark
Denmark is a country in Northern Europe. It is one of the wealthiest countries in the world and is notable for its healthcare. In addition, the Social Progress Index 2017 rated Denmark first in the world for quality of life. Denmark also scored 99.28% in nutrition and basic medical care. Here are seven facts about healthcare in Denmark.

7 Facts About Healthcare in Denmark

  1. All citizens in Denmark enjoy universal, equal and free healthcare services. Citizens have equal access to treatment, diagnosis and choice of hospital under health insurance group one. Healthcare services include primary and preventive care, specialist care, hospital care, mental health care, long-term care and children’s dental services. However, citizens are able to buy customized insurance under health insurance group two.
  2. Denmark organizes child healthcare into primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare systems. The primary level is free for all Danish citizens. However, there are unsolved problems in Denmark’s child healthcare. Problems include the increasing costs of children’s medical services, limited professional human resources and insufficient coverage of child immunization. In fact, in 2014, Denmark had the lowest childhood immunization coverage in Europe, leading to measles outbreaks.
  3. Tax revenue funds healthcare in Denmark. The state government, regions and municipalities operate the healthcare system and each sector has its own role. The state government creates general healthcare plans and regulations and allocates funding. Meanwhile, regions and municipalities are responsible for making specific plans according to sociodemographic criteria. Regions are in charge of hospital care, while municipalities are responsible for home care, prevention, rehabilitation and public health.
  4. The healthcare system runs more effectively than other developed countries, such as the U.S. and other European countries. For instance, experts attribute low mortality in Denmark to its healthcare success. Health expenditure is high in Denmark, as the country spends 10.3% of its GDP on healthcare services. In 2014, the amenable mortality rate in Denmark was one of the lowest in the E.U. This indicates that healthcare in Denmark has proven successful. Moreover, Denmark spends relatively less money on healthcare in comparison to the USA. In 2016, the U.S. spent 17.21% of its GDP on healthcare, while Denmark only spent 10.37%. By contrast, in 2015, the life expectancy at birth in Denmark was 80.8 years, yet it was 78.8 years in the U.S. Once again, healthcare spending in Denmark proves itself to be very effective.
  5. The high-quality healthcare system increases life expectancy. Danish life expectancy slightly exceeds the average of the E.U. The overall life expectancy of Danish citizens is 81.3 years. However, Danish women have a higher life expectancy than men. A 65-year-old Danish woman can expect to live almost another 20.7 years and men another 18 years.
  6. Cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the top two causes of death. In 2014, cancer accounted for 29% of female mortality, and cardiovascular diseases accounted for 24%. As for men, cancer accounted for 32% of mortality and cardiovascular diseases caused 25%. Other illnesses deplete the quality of life in Denmark as well. Chronic diseases like musculoskeletal problems and depression are not necessarily killers but lead to poor health.
  7. Healthcare in Denmark sets a good example for elderly care in other countries. A large percentage of the population is aging, as 19% of Danish citizens are above 65 years old. Danish senior citizens have the right to enjoy home care services for free, including practical help and personal care, if they are unable to live independently. Similarly, preventive measures and home visits can help citizens above 80 years old to plan their lives and care. In addition, the members of Senior Citizen Councils, which guarantee the healthcare rights of senior citizens, are citizens who are more than 60 years old.

Overall, healthcare in Denmark is high quality and provides general, equal and free services to all citizens. However, the Danish healthcare system is not perfect, and some citizens experience poor health. With stable wealth and advanced technology, Denmark has the potential to solve its healthcare challenges and continue to provide quality services to its citizens.

– Yilin Che
Photo: Flickr

Best Poverty Reduction Programs
In the global fight against poverty, there have been countless programs to effectively downsize this issue. Poverty reduction programs are an important part of the fight against poverty and because of this, countries should be able to cooperate and learn from one another. Thankfully, with the help of the U.N., the world has been making progress in terms of cooperating to implement good poverty reduction programs. In no particular order, these are the five countries with some of the best poverty reduction programs.

Five Countries with the Best Poverty Reduction Programs

1. China

For the Middle Kingdom, poverty reduction is a key contributing factor to its rapidly growing economy. China has helped reduce the global rate of poverty by over 70 percent, and according to the $1.90 poverty line, China has lifted a total of 850 million people out of poverty between 1981 and 2013. With this, the percentage of people living under $1.90 in China dropped from 88 percent to less than 2 percent in 32 years. China’s poverty reduction programs have also benefitted people on a global scale by setting up assistance funds for developing countries and providing thousands of opportunities and scholarships for people in developing countries to receive an education in China.

2. Brazil

Brazil has taken great steps in reducing poverty and income inequality. Brazil has implemented programs such as the Bolsa Familia Program (Family Grant Program) and Continuous Cash Benefit. Researchers have said that the Family Grant Program has greatly reduced income disparity and poverty, thanks to its efforts of ensuring that more children go to school. They have also said that beneficiaries of this program are less likely to repeat a school year. Meanwhile, the Continuous Cash Benefit involves an income transfer that targets the elderly and the disabled.

3. Canada

Canada has implemented poverty reduction programs such as the Guaranteed Income Supplement and the National Housing Strategy. The Guaranteed Income Supplement is a monthly benefit for low-income senior citizens. This program helped nearly 2 million people in 2017 alone. Meanwhile, the National Housing Strategy in an investment plan for affordable housing that intends to help the elderly, people fleeing from domestic violence and Indigenous people. With its poverty reduction programs in place, Canada reportedly hopes to cut poverty in half by 2030.

4. United States

Although the United States has a long way to go when it comes to battling poverty, it does still have its poverty reduction programs that have proven to be effective. According to the Los Angeles Times, programs such as Social Security, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, the Earned Income Tax Credit and food stamps have all helped to reduce deep poverty. In particular, people consider the Earned Income Tax Credit to be helpful for families that earn roughly 150 percent of the poverty line, approximately $25,100 for a four-person family. Social Security could help reduce poverty among the elderly by 75 percent.

5. Denmark

Denmark has a social welfare system that provides benefits to the unemployed, the disabled and the elderly, among others. People in Denmark are generally in good health and have low infant mortality rates. Denmark also has public access to free education, with most of its adult population being literate.

It should be stressed that none of these countries are completely devoid of poverty, but they do provide some good examples of how governments can go about reducing this issue. With the help of organizations like the USAID, it is clear that this is an issue many take seriously.

Adam Abuelheiga
Photo: Flickr