Chocolate Production and Child Labor
When a person craves a quick snack or pick-me-up and runs to the store to grab their favorite chocolate bar, they may not wonder where the chocolate came from in the first place. However, much of cocoa production takes place in West African in places like the Ivory Coast and Ghana. The result of this cocoa harvest is sweet, but the process is quite bitter. Currently, 2 million children in these countries labor to produce chocolate. Over the last few years, measures have removed children from this labor. However, the problematic relationship between chocolate production and child labor has increased from 30% to 41%.

The Conditions of the Children

Children often work on small cocoa farms in the Ivory Coast, and mostly as victims of human trafficking. They work day in and day out using machetes and harmful pesticides to harvest cocoa pods. The children are very young and overworked with hunger. Most of them have not even gone to school for many years.

Raising Awareness

The world’s chocolate companies are aware of the atrocities of chocolate production and child labor that are part of their products’ creation. Many have pledged to eradicate child labor in the industry, but have consistently fallen short. In an article in the Washington Post, Peter Whoriskey and Rachel Siegel addressed this issue. They outlined the continuous failure of many large companies to remove child labor from their chocolate supply chain. As a result of these companies’ negligence, the odds are substantial that a chocolate bar in the United States is the product of child labor. Some of the biggest chocolate brands, such as Nestle or Hershey, cannot even claim that child labor is not involved in their chocolate production.

Addressing the Issue

The U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) is combatting child labor in the chocolate production process. It has been creating plans and programs to break the cycle. Its research and data show that the Ivory Coast and Ghana produce 60% of the world’s chocolate, with a steadily increasing demand for chocolate worldwide. This will likely exacerbate child labor issues instead of stopping them. As the leading funders of child labor combatting programs, ILAB has raised $29 million to fight child labor in chocolate production in the Ivory Coast and Ghana.

ILAB formed the Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG). It brought together the governments of the Ivory Coast and Ghana and representatives from the International Chocolate and Cocoa Industry together. They had essential conversations that are integral in eradicating child labor in the chocolate industry.

The CLCCG works toward eradicating child labor. It has also been integral in raising awareness about this issue and creating resources to combat it. However, it cannot do it all by itself. Governments, stakeholders and large chocolate companies must commit themselves to removing children from harmful environments for the sake of cocoa production.

Looking Ahead

Chocolate production and child labor have gone hand in hand for decades. However, through the efforts of government organizations, the cocoa production process could become as sweet as its end product.

Kalicia Bateman
Photo: Unsplash

Innovations in Poverty Eradication in Côte d'Ivoire
Côte d’Ivoire, otherwise known as the Ivory Coast, is a country nestled in the western panhandle of the African continent. Though the country has been war-torn since 2010, Côte d’Ivoire is becoming a vital part of the world economy. Poverty in Côte d’Ivoire affects more than 46% of the population; however, the country is working to provide more jobs, funding and resources for its citizens. Here are five innovations in poverty eradication in Côte d’Ivoire.

Working with World Organizations

The government of Côte d’Ivoire is working with world organizations to help Ivorian citizens. With aid from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Côte d’Ivoire is supporting economic growth and the eradication of poverty through Results-Based Management (RBM) and the implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS).

Within the PRS document established in 2009, government officials outlined multiple poverty eradication goals. Among these goals are greater accessibility to food and healthcare as well as increased job opportunities for men and women.

Another notable organization working alongside the government to eradicate poverty in Côte d’Ivoire is the Sustainable Development Goals Fund (SDGF). This organization seeks to help vulnerable populations, such as women and children, achieve financial stability through training, counseling and education. Specifically, SDGF provides education for women who have dropped out of school or who are looking to generate their own income.

New Strategies for Ending Hunger

Among the innovations in poverty eradication in Côte d’Ivoire is adopting new strategies for ending hunger. In 2016, the Côte d’Ivoire government, with help from the World Food Programme (WFP), created a National Development Plan (NDP) to facilitate the country’s transition to becoming a middle-income economy by 2020. With help from WFP, the Ivorian government aims to increase access to food banks and work more closely with other organizations to end malnutrition.

Previously, in 2009, the Ivorian government worked with the IMF and World Bank to establish strategies for ending hunger throughout the country. To achieve this goal, Côte d’Ivoire vowed to modernize storage techniques of fresh produce, make food more widely accessible, increase the production of rice and update health standards for food supply.

Other Avenues for Helping Citizens

In Côte d’Ivoire, the mining sector is undervalued. While the mining industry previously focused on gold, there is an increased interest in nickel, iron and manganese. By expanding geographical data of the land, the mining industry could see vast profit and job increases.

Further, enhancing transportation — public and private — could help citizens escape poverty in Côte d’Ivoire, as well as better integrate the country into the international economy. Allocating more funds to road infrastructure, road maintenance and other modes of transport can facilitate domestic trading. Additionally, it could help individual citizens have better access to basic services and economic opportunities.

Becoming an Active Partner in the Global Market

The 2018-2022 Country Strategy Paper (CSP) suggests that to maintain favorable economic growth, Côte d’Ivoire should attract global investments, employ economic reforms and create more agriculture-industrial chains of supply. With support from the CSP and the World Bank, Côte d’Ivoire will receive loans to reach their economic development goals.

Côte d’Ivoire is further strengthening their economy through investments in the mining and electricity sectors, and by simplifying the start-up process and tax-paying procedure for small businesses.

Mending Gender Disparities Associated with Poverty

While gender inequalities still exist in Côte d’Ivoire, the government is working to make employment and educational opportunities more equal. More than 50% of women in Côte d’Ivoire are uneducated, and 73.7% of women are illiterate. In comparison, only 36% of men receive no education, and 46.7% of men are illiterate. To combat these disparities, funding is set aside for activities that specifically empower women. Further, more women are chosen to participate in important projects, thanks to the Affirmative Finance Action for Women in Africa (AFAWA).

With more concentrated funding in education and the job market, impoverished women can establish themselves in society and regain economic stability. According to the World Bank, it is in the country’s best interest financially to incorporate more women in the job market.

Conclusion

These innovations in poverty eradication in Côte d’Ivoire show the government’s focus on addressing this issue. It is imperative that the country continue to receive funding to incorporate itself into the international economy. By sticking to these strategies and working with world organizations, the government will hopefully be able to eradicate poverty in Côte d’Ivoire.

Danielle Kuzel
Photo: Flickr

Infant Mortality in Côte d'Ivoire
When examining the whole of Africa, infant mortality is a matter of grave concern. The West African country of Côte d’Ivoire currently struggles in comparison with other countries in the same category. The World Bank recorded an infant mortality rate of 59.40 per 1,000 live births there in 2018. These deaths stem from several causes, with the primary issue being the lack of available infant care in the country. However, in recent years, these numbers have improved dramatically; the rate of infant mortality in Côte d’Ivoire is almost half of the 100.7 deaths recorded per 1,000 live births in 1998, according to the same source.

The Scope of the Problem

Despite the lower mortality rate, fundamental problems persist. A report by the Healthy Newborn Network (HNN) that used sources compiled from the WHO and the MCEE determined that skilled professionals attend only 74% of the country’s live births. Moreover, approximately 12% of children are pre-term (i.e. before 37 weeks of pregnancy). These issues are at the foundations of the nation’s present-day mortality numbers, which remain elevated.

Progress

Yet over the years, a variety of factors have contributed to the dramatic lowering of infant mortality in Côte d’Ivoire. One of the most important of these factors is the increased educational opportunities for medical professionals within the country. Côte d’Ivoire has a strict curriculum set for all aspiring midwives. A comprehensive U.N. report noted that the country’s standardized program requires graduation through the 12th grade and an additional three years of study, as well as other professional experiences in order to graduate.

A Look at the Numbers

Necessity accentuates the importance of these programs as events related to conception and preterm birth complications account for 58% of infant deaths. These include a lack of professional attention or postpartum care, both of which are very important to the large proportion of babies born preterm. The HNN report also points out other issues causing infant mortality, noting that either Tetanus or Sepsis causes an additional 21% of deaths. A notable similarity between these two issues is that many instances of them are avoidable. For example, tetanus issues typically stem from a lack of care regarding sanitation and the severing of the umbilical cord — which more professional, trained practice in various regions of the country would prevent.

Urban vs. Rural Births Pose a Problem

Côte d’Ivoire’s improvements, however, do not have even distribution throughout the country. According to previously mentioned U.N. statistics, while over 82% of urban births had a skilled birth attendant present, less than 50% of births in rural areas had the same professionals available. This problem extends further when considering that 2020 projections estimated that rural areas would account for nearly twice as many pregnancies as urban environments. While the report recorded over 6,000 trained physicians and midwives practicing within the country — few of these professionals practice in rural areas, where communities lack the resources to provide safe child-birthing to their populations.

Improvements Needed for Sustainable Population Growth

Although the country certainly has improved conditions for delivery in recent years, the fight against a rising infant mortality rate must persist. With sources like the World Population Review predicting the country’s population to double by 2050, the progressive improvement of infant care is essential for Côte d’Ivoire to continue its positive trend against high infant mortality.

Joe Clark
Photo: Flickr

Homelessness in Cote D'Ivoire
Known as one of the world’s largest exporters of coffee and palm oil, Côte D’Ivoire was at one point one of the strongest economies in Western Africa. Now, ravaged by civil war and extreme poverty, homelessness is one of the largest issues in the country.

Political Unrest

Homelessness in Côte D’Ivoire is a complicated topic with underlying issues that date back to its 2010 election. The result of this election was political unrest. Some 220,000 people were forced to flee the Western Côte D’Ivoire due to village raiding and the execution of those opposing the new president. The UN Refugee Agency has brought back around 33,700 Côte D’Ivoire refugees from Liberia since 2011; about 400, additionally have returned from Guinea. Others have come back on their own. Returning refugees face housing and land insecurity, compounded by the existing tension between ethnic and political enemies within the country.

Additionally, the government has evicted many people due to flooding in areas such as Abidjan, the country’s urban center, leaving thousands homeless. Returning refugees, in addition to those forced out from their homes, struggle to stay with anyone who can accommodate them while they try to rebuild their lives. Since land ownership agreements in Côte D’Ivoire are predominantly verbal and not controlled by the government, it is uncertain what land belongs to which factions. This often causes land disputes and makes it difficult to find land to rebuild on. A lack of land is one of the driving forces behind the returning refugee housing crisis, as well as other homelessness in Côte D’Ivoire.

Temporary Housing

There are two main types of homelessness in Côte D’Ivoire. The first occurs when people are homeless because they are landless. The second problem arises among those who live in improper temporary housing. These temporary houses are often made of mud with wooden frames or are poorly constructed from bricks. Made with thatching, the roofs may have disease-carrying insects, such as malaria mosquitoes and tsetse flies. Since these houses are overcrowded by the homeless, poor ventilation and the spread of disease are common issues. In rural areas, about 90% of people live in these improper and temporary housing structures. Only 18.1% of the households possess a pit latrine, and 92.5% of households use unsafe drinking water.

Humanitarian Efforts

While the government’s Post-Crisis Assistance Program has rebuilt/restored 687 houses in 2012 through World Bank funding, the cumulative housing deficit in Côte d’Ivoire was estimated at 600,000 units in 2015. In Abidjan alone, the housing deficit is around 40,000 units per year.

Habitat for Humanity in Côte d’Ivoire helps build homes and latrines using local resources. The Overseas Aid & Development Commission, which distributes money from the States of Guernsey to charities undertaking development and humanitarian work, has funded Habitat for Humanity to aid homelessness in Côte d’Ivoire. They are using the funds to improve the health and living conditions of the extremely poor and homeless. The objective of this project is to improve access to sustainable sanitation and hygiene services by rehabilitating water pumps and latrines and distributing hygiene kits. This is all done in accordance with the local authorities and governments. Habitat also works to mobilize local communities to collect resources, spread information and foster cooperation among leaders of diverse communities; this empowers them to maintain the rebuilt infrastructure.

Giulia Silver
Photo: Flickr

tuberculosis in Côte d'IvoireTuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial illness spread through breathing contaminated air droplets from an infected individual. TB is also transferable by drinking unpasteurized milk containing Mycobacterium bovis, or Bovine Tuberculosis. The bacterium primarily affects the lungs, which is known as pulmonary TB. More than 90% of individuals with TB have a latent form and do not experience overwhelming symptoms. With tuberculosis being one of the leading causes of death in Côte d’Ivoire, the government is making numerous efforts to help those with the illness. The health agencies in Côte d’Ivoire, using assistance from the government and other countries, are mitigating the spread of TB through medicine, proper healthcare and bringing awareness to the communities. Here are five facts about the rising issue of tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire.

5 Facts About Tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire

  1. More than 8,000 people died from tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire in 2018. In addition, there were 36,000 reported cases of TB. While active efforts are being made to try and control the spread of TB, the citizens of Côte d’Ivoire struggle to afford treatment, healthcare and testing. With over 46% of the population living in poverty, it is difficult for most of them to find access to hospitals and testing centers. TB is highly endemic in Côte d’Ivoire, meaning it is extremely prevalent within many of the impoverished Ivorian communities. For every 100,000 citizens, 23 of them will die from tuberculosis. Among those 100,000 citizens, more than 148 of them will be diagnosed with a form of TB. It is increasingly important that a global effort is made to bring awareness to this illness and help the citizens of Côte d’Ivoire receive proper medical treatment. Thankfully, the transmission of TB has been on the decline within the past few years. In 2000, 367 people per 100,000 citizens of Côte d’Ivoire were diagnosed with TB. This contrasts 2018 in which less than half the number of citizens were diagnosed (only 142 per 100,000 individuals).
  2. There are multiple factors that lead to the spread of tuberculosis. TB can be spread through Côte d’Ivoire by living in poverty, existing in a post-war environment and having HIV/AIDS. Ivorian citizens living in impoverished circumstances suffer from malnutrition and weakened immune systems. This makes contracting TB far easier for those with an inferior healthcare system and little access to basic resources. Living in poverty also means less access to tests for TB, which makes it hard to know who is infected. The war-torn climate of the country weakens the healthcare system. This causes a wider outbreak of TB with fewer people being treated. Political unrest and violence also force citizens to escape to other parts of the country. The emigration of families moving from northern cities to rural settlements in the south of Côte d’Ivoire increases the spread of TB while limiting immediate access to healthcare. Abidjan is one major city that faces overwhelming cases of tuberculosis. HIV/AIDS renders immune systems weak and increases individuals’ susceptibility to TB. The comorbidity between HIV and TB in Côte d’Ivoire is extremely high. In 2018, more than 7,000 of the 36,000 citizens with TB were also treated for HIV/AIDS. The Ivorian Ministry of Health (MOH) works with organizations like Measure Evaluation to track the spread of diseases like HIV and TB and increase testing in high-risk areas. The efforts have so far been successful.
  3. There are currently four treatments for tuberculosis. As of 2020, there are four recognized medicinal treatments for TB: Isoniazid (INH), Rifampin (RMP), Pyrazinamide (PZA) and Ethambutol (EMB). These medicines must be taken for three to nine months as directed by a medical professional. This ensures that the bacterium is killed. Skipping a dose, because of inaccessibility to a prescription or otherwise, causes a tuberculosis infection to come back stronger. While most forms of TB are curable with medicine, Côte d’Ivoire is plagued with strains of drug-resistant tuberculosis. In 2018, there were more than 2,000 individuals with a drug-resistant type of tuberculosis (DR-TB). These individuals are harder to treat since any known medicine is ineffective against the strain of TB. Luckily, 82% of people who are treated for tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire recover successfully. With the help of well-trained medical professionals and funding from other countries, the government of Côte d’Ivoire can better treat and identify those with TB.
  4. Tuberculosis is primarily observed in young men. Men ages 20-40 years old experience TB more frequently than any other demographic. Most of these men are working-class and have little education. Because men are also frequently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Côte d’Ivoire, they are at a greater risk for contracting TB. As the rates of HIV/AIDS increase in the male population (a 3:1 sex ratio), the tuberculosis infection rates have also increased.
  5. World organizations and other countries have greatly aided in treating and ending the spread of tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire. With help from NGOs and world health outreach programs, TB in Côte d’Ivoire has decreased. In 2007, TB was the 7th leading cause of death, however, a decade later in 2017, TB has dropped to the 8th leading cause of death in Côte d’Ivoire.

One important organization is The Stop TB Partnership. By pairing government agencies with other foundations, research agencies and private sector resources, this organization aims to create a TB-free world. In 2014, various partners met with specialists from the Programme National de Lutte contre la Tuberculose to design a national committee tasked with controlling and treating tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire. The members of these groups were responsible for designing a plan for infection control, allocating monetary and human resources and outlining the structure of the new committee. Through this workshop, the anti-TB program in Côte d’Ivoire established clear strategies for tackling the problem of tuberculosis. Stop TB developed oversight committees, regulations for how resources are spent and a plan for reducing the spread of TB.

According to the United Nations, Côte d’Ivoire is on the way to reaching various Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The U.N. is actively helping Côte d’Ivoire eradicate illnesses like HIV, malaria and TB by the year 2030 through free doctor visits and accessible medicine.

It is crucial that the citizens of Côte d’Ivoire receive the proper treatment and financial assistance to help them overcome the tuberculosis endemic. It is imperative that those diagnosed with this illness are immediately identified and properly treated. With strategic planning, proper funding and extensive training for medical professionals, the infection rate of tuberculosis in Côte d’Ivoire is expected to decrease in the coming years.

– Danielle Kuzel
Photo: Flickr