SDG 10 in China
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of 17 targets intended to combat poverty on a global level and create a more sustainable future. All United Nations Member States adopted them in 2015. Major challenges still remain to reach SDG 10 in China, which targets the reduction of inequalities across the world.

The Gini coefficient, which is an indicator used to measure wealth and income inequality within a nation, typically measures inequality levels. The United Nations has set the warning value of this indicator as any value over 40. China’s Gini index peaked in 2008 at 49, and has since experienced a slight decline to 46.8 in 2018, and then to 46.5 in 2019.

Causes of Inequality

One of the primary hindrances to progress in SDG 10 in China is its rural-urban gap. There are major differences in lifestyle, education level, income and access to financial services between urban and rural areas in China, which exacerbates the increase in inequalities across the country.

High levels of inequality in China began to surge in the 1980s when the country experienced one of the most rapid periods of macroeconomic growth and urbanization. While poverty levels overall lowered substantially in China over this time period, and income levels increased among poorer groups, inequality increased drastically. This is largely due to the income of the most wealthy upper two deciles (most of whom live in urban areas) nearly doubling between 2002 and 2007. This, coupled with the creation of private property, all led to a severe widening of the wealth gap. Private ownership of property led to a growth of asset income in urban areas. In 2002, experts found that asset contributed to 8% to 10% of national income inequality in China, and in 2007, this figure grew to 13% to 19%.

China’s Urbanization Plan

Since 2008, there has been some slight advancement in SDG 10 in China but continued levels of rapidly increasing urbanization will cause China to largely depend on policy reform to continue to moderate and lower its high levels of inequality. These initiatives should include a focus on targeting the rural-urban gap.

As a way to target the rural-urban gap, which experts see as a main cause of inequality, China announced an urbanization plan in 2014, which targets moving about 100 million more current rural residents into cities by 2020. The urban population in China has since increased from a proportion of 54.77% of the population in 2014 to a proportion of 59.58% of the population in 2018. A criticism of this plan notes that as this does not address the underlying issues causing inequalities between rural and urban areas, it could simply lead to a shift to an urban-urban wealth gap.

The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme

China has also expanded the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme since 2005, which is a health insurance program that emerged in the late 1990s. It also created the New Rural Pension Scheme in about 2010. These two programs expanded the rural social protection system, which previously did not cover all people in rural areas. Access to health insurance for rural populations has indirect effects on rural incomes. The rapidly aging population of China has also been a contributor to inequality levels, which the pension program helps to address.

Other Initiatives

Several other policy initiatives that aid the progress of SDG 10 in China include personal tax income reform, labor market policies, pro-farmer policies, social security, regional development strategy and fiscal transfer policies, poverty alleviation policies and financial inclusion. The country also added an exemption from agricultural fees and taxes for rural households in 2006. These had historically been a financial burden for rural citizens. China has also established the Dibao program, which is a cash transfer program that guarantees a minimum income for low-income households. It started in urban areas in the mid-1990s and expanded to include rural areas after 1999. In 2016, more than 60 million people were beneficiaries of the Dibao program.

Further fiscal policy reforms are crucial to improve the status of SDG 10 in China. Without these, projected structural trends predict rising inequality levels. These policies will likely have to focus on tax reforms, an increase in public spending on education, health and social assistance and on targeting the provincial and regional inequalities that contribute to the rural-urban gap.

– Katherine Musgrave
Photo: Flickr

Crops That Are Fighting PovertyAcross the world, agriculture remains one of the primary sources of income for those living in poverty. A 2019 report by The World Bank reported that 80% of those living in extreme poverty reside in rural regions, and a large majority of these individuals rely upon agriculture for their livelihood. The World Bank also notes that developing agriculture is one of the most effective ways to alleviate poverty, reduce food insecurity and enhance the general well-being of those living in a community. Potatoes in China, cassava in sub-Saharan Africa, rice in Sierra Leone, pearl millet in India and bananas in Costa Rica are five examples of crops that are fighting poverty.

5 Crops That Are Fighting Poverty

  1. Potatoes in China: In 2019, China was the world’s number one potato-producing country. With a rural population of 45.23%, the nation greatly relies upon agriculture to provide food as well as income to its citizens. In Ulanqub, otherwise known as the “potato city” of China, potato farming is one of the primary means for farmers to rise out of poverty. Due to the fact that viruses have the potential to destroy up to 80% of potato crops, potato engineers in Ulanqub have developed seeds that are more impervious to viruses. These engineers place a sterile potato stem into a solution filled with nutrients to create “virus-free breeder seeds.” The seeds are then planted and produce potatoes of higher quality, ensuring that farmers are able to generate sufficient income and climb out of poverty.
  2. Cassava in sub-Saharan Africa: Cassava is a principal source of calories for 40% of Africans. This crop has traditionally been important during times of famine and low rainfall because it is drought-resistant, requires easily-accessible tools and is easily harvestable by one family. The organization NextGen utilizes genomic technology to isolate beneficial cassava traits that increase plant viability, root quality and yield quantity. By analyzing crop DNA and statistically predicting performance, NextGen is creating cassava crops that are fighting poverty.
  3. Rice in Sierra Leone: Agriculture accounts for 57% of Sierra Leone’s GDP, with rice reigning as the primary staple crop. However, in 2011, the nation was a net rice importer due to struggles with planting efficiency. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was developed to increase rice crop yield and decrease the labor necessary for upkeep. This method requires the use of organic fertilizers, tighter regulations for watering quantities, greater spacing between seeds to decrease plant competition and rotary hoes for weeding. As of 2014, 10,865 individuals had implemented this strategy in Sierra Leone. SRI has enabled rice to become one of the crops that is fighting poverty by increasing crop production from two to six tons per hectare.
  4. Pearl Millet in India: In India, agriculture employs 59% of the nation’s workforce, with 82% of farmers operating small farms that are highly susceptible to the negative impacts of climate change. As temperatures rise to a scorching 114℉, crops that are able to survive extreme heat are becoming necessary. Wild pearl millet, a relative of domestic pearl millet, is one crop that can withstand such temperatures. Researchers in India are breeding wild pearl millet seeds with domestic pearl millet in order to enhance resistance to heat and the common “blast” disease. With breeding innovations, pearl millet is one of the crops that are fighting poverty.
  5. Bananas in Costa Rica: One out of every 10 bananas produced in 2015 hailed from Costa Rica, the globe’s third-largest banana producer. This industry generated $ 1.1 billion in 2017 and provides jobs for 100,000 Costa Ricans. However, approximately 90% of banana crops across the nation are at risk of nutrient deprivation from a pest known as nematode, which has the potential to obliterate entire plantations. An article by CropLife International reported that a sustainable pesticide has been created by plant scientists in order to mitigate poverty-inducing crop loss and provide environmentally-conscious methods for banana farmers to ward off pests.

Developing crop viability and agricultural technology is important for poverty alleviation as agriculture possesses twice the likelihood of creating financial growth than other economic sectors. Innovations in crop production that decrease the likelihood of failure from drought, disease and changing weather patterns are important for the well-being of rural communities across the globe. Potatoes, cassava, rice, pearl millet and bananas are just five examples of crops that are fighting poverty, but improvements in different facets of agriculture have the potential to enhance the livelihoods of those who provide the world’s food.

Suzi Quigg
Photo: Flickr

uyghur women
The Uyghur community in China is a suppressed Muslim Turkish minority centered in Xinjiang, a region in Central Asia. Since 2018, the Chinese government has placed up to two million Muslims and Uyghurs in concentration camps due to their cultural identity and religion. Uyghur women in particular face gendered abuses in addition to this mass incarceration.

Uyghur Women Speak Out on Harmful Practices in Xinjiang

Many courageous Uyghur women have come forward to expose the abuses they faced in the so-called re-education camps China has used since 2018. For example, a 38-year-old woman from Urumqi had to have her fallopian tubes tied because she had three children. Under Chinese rule, only two children are allowed per family.

Unfortunately, this is only one of the numerous cases in which Uyghur women have experienced sexual abuse or harassment in China. Experts believe that China has enforced its one-child policy by preventing 400 million births via forced abortions and mandated contraception. Because Uyghur families in Xinjiang are used to having up to 10 children, this rule is especially oppressive toward Uyghur women.

Since 2017, Uyghur families who violated this rule have experienced harsh punishments and violent attacks. In addition, there were 60,000 sterilizations in Xinjiang in 2018. This is about 57,000 more sterilizations than in 2014, when there were only about 3,000 in the region. As a result, Xinjiang’s population has dropped by more than 10% since 2014.

New Evidence

As a result of the stories women came forward with, new documentation has been released about the cruelties of China’s treatment of Uyghurs in concentration camps. Asiye Abdulaheb, an Uyghur woman residing in the Netherlands, joined forces with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists to expose 24 pages of documents about the camps. This documentation followed 403 pages detailing the brutalities of Beijing’s concentration camps that were leaked in November 2019. Despite the resistance to China’s camps that followed the release of these documents, the government still denies these accusations. China continues to claim that the concentration camps are just job training centers and nothing more.

Actions to Combat the Oppression of Uyghur Communities

Despite the brutal violence that numerous Uyghur women have endured, many organizations have made strides toward aiding them. The Uyghur Human Rights Project is one such organization. Founded in 2004, the project is a research-based advocacy group dedicated to reporting the abuses faced by many Uyghur families in China.

The One Nation Project, a similar organization, aims to assist Uyghur victims currently living in concentration camps. With over 5 million beneficiaries, the One Nation Project uses donations to deliver food packages to Uyghur families. Other fundraising campaigns also exist to provide aid for Uyghur families. LaunchGood, a crowdfunding platform for Muslims, hosted a fundraiser that raised over $107,000 for Uyghur women and children. So far, the campaign has been able to help cover rent for 67 Uyghur families and has given over 343 monthly allocations to orphans.

Aside from projects and fundraising campaigns, however, there is much more the United States can do to stop the abuse in Xinjiang. One simple step would be ceasing to support forced labor from Uyghur communities. Popular brands such as H&M, Adidas, and Calvin Klein have been found to sell products made by forced Uyghur labor. More than 180 organizations are advocating for banning products made from forced Uyghur labor. Rep. Ro Khana, D-CA, goes further to ask the U.S. government to prohibit the importation of products made in Chinese camps.

Having stronger foreign policies can also allow the United States to obtain more support for Uyghur victims. As of now, the United States has lessened its involvement in the U.N. and has failed to hold China accountable for its abuses against Uyghur women and families. Because China is one of the five primary members of the U.N. Human Rights Council, it has the power to veto any proposal. With greater involvement in the U.N., the U.S. could work against the harmful practices that China conducts in Xinjiang. Foreign involvement in this issue is crucial. If the U.S. leveraged its power, alongside multiple projects and campaigns helping Uyghur victims, the abuses against Uyghur families could stop in the future.

Aishwarya Thiyagarajan
Photo: Flickr

coffin homesFor years, Hong Kong has remained the most expensive city in the world, with property prices averaging $2,091 per square foot. The effects of globalization and an increasing population density have worsened the wealth inequality in the region. While Hong Kong’s GDP per capita is nearly $50,000, a recent census found that one in five Hong Kong residents are living in poverty. As the city becomes more crowded, many low-income residents can only afford to live in Hong Kong’s “coffin homes.” These subdivided units make up almost 20% of Hong Kong’s housing. They are frequently overcrowded, unsanitary and windowless. Accordingly, the families living in these homes have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. Children cannot go outside, have difficulty keeping up with online learning and often experience financial and emotional stress. Fortunately, organizations like the Society for Community Organization (SoCO) are using grassroots political activism to advocate for impacted families.

Hong Kong’s Coffin Homes

Photos taken by AP photographer Kin Cheung show individuals living in housing units as small as six by three feet. Many are closet-sized, tucked into larger rooms with communal bathrooms and kitchens. These subdivided units are full of mattresses, clothing, TVs and trash. Many don’t have room for residents to stand or sleep, and residents report cockroach and bed bug infestations.

A 2016 census estimated that 209,700 Hong Kong citizens were living in subdivided units. The median monthly income of residents was $1,741 a month, with many of them working in food services. Residents struggle as COVID-19 has forced the closure of nearby restaurants, limiting the number of customers. The South China Morning Post reports that, from January through March 2020, revenue from the food and beverage industry in Hong Kong dropped more than 30%. A survey of low-income adults, conducted in early March 2020, found that 38% of had lost their jobs. As Hong Kong experiences its third wave of COVID-19, residents continue to face unemployment.

COVID-19 and Hong Kong’s Children

SoCO reports that one-fourth of Hong Kong’s children live below the poverty line. Around 50,000 children live in small apartments, rooftop huts or subdivided units. Online learning presents serious struggles for these students, as almost 70% of low-income students in Hong Kong surveyed by SoCO did not own computers. Almost 30% also lacked broadband internet access.

In addition to limited learning, children are more likely to experience long-term psychological effects as a result of home confinement. Oftentimes, children living in Hong Kong’s coffin homes do not have space to be active and, due to COVID-19, cannot go outside. Financial stress, limited social interaction, minimal personal space and boredom can cause long-term psychological harm. A survey of parents by the University of California in Los Angeles found that after quarantining, 30% of children met the criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. All of these effects are exacerbated for children living coffin homes. Additionally, the cramped and unsanitary spaces allow COVID-19 to spread at higher rates.

Grassroots Advocacy for Hong Kong’s Impoverished

SoCO is an NGO that works in Hong Kong to minimize wealth inequality. SoCO aids a variety of Hong Kong citizens impacted by poverty by teaching political involvement and community advocacy. For those living in Hong Kong’s “coffin homes,” the organization pushes for rent controls, the building of more public housing and financial support. Additionally, SoCO collects data on issues impacting children to assess the top 10 concerns to bring to the government’s attention. This inspires children under 18 to understand and advocate for their rights. SoCO has also partnered with smaller organizations to provide physical activities and free classes for children.

As conditions in Hong Kong worsen, low-income families and those living in “coffin homes” cannot be ignored. Children may suffer the most due to home confinement, limited school access and financial stress. While there is no immediate solution, organizations like SoCO continue their work throughout the pandemic to ensure that the government remains aware of the major wealth and education inequalities in Hong Kong.

Ann Marie Vanderveen
Photo: Flickr

rural-urban education gap
China has the largest education system in the world, and education investments make up 4% of the country’s annual GDP. But despite China’s reputation of striving for academic excellence, the country’s rural-urban education gap is widening, and those in poverty are being left behind. After a passing a certain grade level in school, there are no guarantees for rural students to continue their education as easily as their urban peers. This rural-urban education gap helps perpetuate China’s large divide between social classes.

Causes of China’s Rural-Urban Education Gap

China’s government has a mandatory nine-year education policy that allows Chinese children to attend school at no cost from grades one through nine. But after completing primary school, impoverished children are at a much higher risk of dropping out than their urban counterparts. The income level for rural regions is three times less than that of urban regions, yet residents from both areas are expected to afford tuition, books and other educational fees. High school becomes the financial responsibility of families, but upon reaching this level, 60% of rural students have already dropped out because of the costs.

Many rural parents play a game of risk when considering their children’s education. When parents ultimately decide to leave for higher salaries in urban areas, around 60 million children are left in villages to live with relatives and attend school. But while parents’ intentions are to earn money for their children’s schooling, this lack of parental supervision for these “left-behind” children accounts for over 13% of school dropouts by the eighth grade.

The COVID-19 pandemic may increase China’s rural-urban education gap. Only 50% of students in rural regions have undisrupted access to online classes, with one-third of those students being completely cut off from learning. On the other hand, only 5.7% of urban students have zero access. The issue stems from households lacking computers and strong internet connections — a problem that hits rural children the hardest. For example, 40% of students in urban regions own a computer, compared to only 7.3% of students in villages.

Local governments are responsible for financing education in their regions, but those in rural areas often experience financial shortages. Without governmental support, families are left to pay for further schooling but lack the means to do so, resulting in dropouts and poor educational quality. Rural schools are usually staffed with fresh graduates, who are cheaper to hire, but who lack the teaching abilities and experience to properly develop young minds. Incredibly low salaries lead to a high turnover rate in rural communities, with educators in one county reported at earning only 2,500 yuan ($358.79 USD) per month.

Classroom instruction is also difficult with inadequate teaching supplies. While urban classrooms use up-to-date technology in large spaces, rural classrooms lack basic resources and include cramped rooms for students to sleep, because most travel far from their villages to attend school. Without experienced teachers and stimulating learning spaces, the few rural students who can pursue higher education do not make it as far as their urban peers. Less than 5% of rural students are admitted to universities, while over 70% of urban students attend, contributing to China’s rural-urban education gap.

International Aid

China’s rural-urban education gap falls directly in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, which target unequal education and the disparaging effects of poverty. The U.N. is working with China to end wealth disparities in education and promote inclusivity in classrooms. The World Bank is also financing efforts toward mending this gap, including support for the Guangdong Compulsory Education Project. This project’s mission, enacted in 2017 and set to finish in 2023, focuses on improving classroom equipment and teaching quality in public schools. According to the Ministry of Education, 99% of school-age children complete the mandatory nine-year school policy. The World Bank pledged $120 million for this program, which will advance learning from grades first through ninth, helping rural children receive a more comprehensive education while school is still accessible to them.

With China’s current education system, rural children struggle to finance and pursue higher learning. As a result, the rich remain rich and the poor remain poor, perpetuating intergenerational poverty. China’s rural-urban education gap remains a challenge, and changes must be made. As education in China improves, poverty will decrease and millions of children can hope for brighter futures.

Radley Tan
Photo: Flickr

China Technological Innovations
As a highly populated country, China is home to many different demographics, when it comes to income distribution. Poverty in China frequents the rural areas, where development is slower when compared with metropolitan cities. Despite the country’s massive population, more than 82 million citizens are no longer impoverished. In that same vein, the poverty rate of China decreased from around 10% to just less than 2%. As a result of some technological innovations in China, the country has seen improvements in poverty rates.

Generating Synergy

An initiative done by China to reduce poverty is through increasing synergies within China’s markets. By connecting public and private businesses — small and hard-earning jobs like farming can gain more income. Not only does creating partnerships with different companies increase the flow of money — but it is also helping more jobs become available for struggling citizens. Moreover, it boosts the overall productivity of each organization involved. In 2019, the cooperation between China and the E.U. made over 3 trillion yuan (nearly $450 billion), an increase of nearly 10% from the previous year. Creating synergy has benefited China’s economy with new jobs and income sources — especially for low-earning workers.

Farmer Field Schools

Farmers in rural China are among the most vulnerable in the country, as they are the most impoverished. Farmer Field School is a 2019 initiative that provides educational and informative training for small farmers. These forms of training include teaching social skills and business management. Those immersed in this training reached a new profit of more than 15,000 yuan (more than $2,000). This figure represents an increase of around 105% compared with those who did not participate in the training. Farmer Field Schools have reinforced China’s rural farmers’ decision-making skills when it comes to agriculture. Furthermore, they have helped reduce the level of poverty seen among rural farmers by increasing their earnings with newfound knowledge.

BN Vocational School

BN Vocational School (BNVS) is an education program that is free of charge for the underprivileged youth. This organization focuses on generational poverty and how to help end it. As a vocational school, BNVS sets students up for success by equipping them with the skills they will need in their future career paths. Nearly 7,000 disadvantaged children have received education from BNVS via the 11 schools operated. BNVS helps its students escape poverty by nurturing their education to help them secure jobs in the future.

INOHERB Cosmetics

INOHERB Cosmetics is a Chinese company that specializes in herbal medicine: in particular, the Rhodiola plant. As a country that loves herbal medicine, Rhodiola became a product of high-demand — giving farmers an increased new workload. INOHERB proposed a policy that would pay farmers additional wages if they successfully grew the plant. With more than 8,000 seedlings planted and a successful survival rate of more than 80%, farmers were granted an additional 30,000 RMB (around $4,500) on top of their original income. INOHERB Cosmetic’s unique approach towards alleviating poverty has benefited more than 1,200 farmers and continues to mobilize and support impoverished workers.

Innovations in China Paving the Way Forward

With proven results, China’s efforts towards poverty relief has provided impoverished people with a second chance of increasing their incomes. Innovations in China have taken on distinct forms, such as educational initiatives and creating public and private business synergies. These innovational initiatives have certainly benefited the country and with a little more help and support from continued initiatives — more rural citizens can continue to do better.

Karina Wong
Photo: Flickr

DouyinWhen the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) first emerged in Wuhan, a metropolitan city located in China’s Hubei province, the Chinese government took strict measures to contain the infection. Less than two weeks after the first recorded death linked to COVID-19 occurred, Chinese authorities declared the entire city under lockdown with the rest of the province following suit in just a matter of days. This caused a severe economic downturn, but the Douyin app presents an unlikely solution.

Despite Chinese health officials now deeming the country fit to reopen, many small and medium-sized businesses worry that they cannot resume business as usual after suffering from the unexpected closures. Considering that these small and medium-sized businesses make up more than 60% of the country’s overall gross domestic product (GDP), their potential failure sets China’s economy at a severe decline.

ByteDance, a Chinese multinational technology company, devised a method to assist small-business owners affected by the COVID-19 outbreak. Using the popularity of ByteDance’s most well-known app, Douyin, to their advantage, small and medium-sized business owners will be allowed to reopen their markets to a broader audience. And in turn, Douyin can help reignite China’s economy.

What is Douyin?

Douyin is a Chinese social media app that allows its users to create and share brief clips that often include people lip-syncing, playing practical jokes, or participating in viral challenges. The app was developed by ByteDance, the aforementioned Chinese multinational technology company, and released into the Chinese market in September 2016. The app rapidly gained popularity and now has more than 1 billion downloads worldwide, with 500 million monthly active users. In 2017, ByteDance released TikTok, another social media app with a similar function to Douyin but for global markets.

How Does Douyin Differ From TikTok?

Despite having similar logos and content, Douyin and TikTok are indeed two different applications geared towards different audiences. On the one hand, TikTok was intended for global markets, while Douyin was only aimed at Chinese markets. This is why Tiktok is not available for download within Chinese app stores in the same way that Douyin is not available on app stores outside of China, such as the Google Play Store or Apple’s App Store. Additionally, the apps have different policies regarding censorship on specific topics. While you may find countless parodies mocking U.S. political leaders on TikTok, no such mockery exists within Douyin. Instead, propaganda that promotes the overall message of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and attempts to rally nationalistic sentiment populates Douyin.

How Can Watching Short Videos Rebuild an Entire Market?

As mentioned previously, Douyin has a massive fanbase with more than 500 million monthly active users. Of these 500 million people, 52.8% are less than 24 years of age. Often, these millennials will share ideas and products that they think others will find appealing. Thus, when merchants have a platform integrated within Douyin that allows them to advertise and sell their products quickly, they will be able to reignite their businesses. As a result, Douyin can help China’s economy by allowing these small and medium-sized businesses to promptly resume their operations.

Why Douyin Instead of Conventional E-Commerce Platforms?

Popular e-commerce platforms are notorious for their high commission rates. Hence, when ByteDance first established its online group buying function, it aimed to create a “zero threshold” environment for the small and medium-sized online business platforms. This meant that ByteDance’s technical service commission would be as low as 1%, a significantly lower rate than the usual 20% charge traditional e-commerce platforms would require. This way, the businesses will be able to restore themselves quickly.

Despite the hardships China had to endure in the wake of the initial COVID-19 outbreak, companies like ByteDance continue to use their influence in order to help those who have suffered the most. As a result, the Chinese economy continues to steadily improve, showing the world how powerful social media can be.

Heather Law
Photo: Flickr

Correlation Between Disability And Poverty
In many countries, disabled individuals are marginalized and given access to fewer resources when compared to their abled counterparts. When it comes to global poverty, it is crucial to understand the inequity placed upon disabled communities as they are one of the most discriminated against groups, especially in impoverished areas. Disabled communities are also more susceptible to the risks and dangers of the coronavirus and have limited access to safe care.

A Need for Accessibility

In countries such as China and Brazil, there is an 80% positive correlation between disability and global poverty. Currently, more than 85 million people are disabled in China yet are lacking medical resources, especially in rural areas. Poor infrastructure such as narrow sidewalks or overcrowded buildings hamper easy movement for people with disabilities. In China, over 300 disabled persons have co-signed a letter in allowing online maps to locate certain ramps or “barrier-free facilities” to create better mobility for these communities.

With such efforts, however, a few improvements have been made to provide equitable opportunities for the disabled. As of now, over 1,500 local governments in China have added barrier-free facilities—such as ramps, wider sidewalks, and lifts. This allowed more than 147,000 families, primarily from low-income households, to access certain facilities once inconvenient for disabled people. Consequently, more strides have been made on a digital platform, such as providing consultations for disabled communities that are limited in resources.

Human Rights Violation in Institutions

Similar to China, Brazil has previously overlooked the quality of life for its disabled population, especially in care homes with very poor conditions. In 2018, the Human Rights Watch made it a priority for Brazil to provide better care options for people with disabilities who are otherwise confined to poorly run institutions. Many of these institutions were barely even providing basic necessities to residents, such as food and hygiene care. There were no opportunities for social enrichment or personal advancement.

“Conditions are often inhumane, with dozens of people crammed into rooms filled with beds packed tightly together,” the Human Rights Watch report concluded. After interviewing over 171 disabled people living in these institutions, it was clear that improving conditions in these facilities was imperative to better quality of life for disabled residents.

However, the Brazilian government is taking multiple actions to protect their disabled population from inadequate care in these institutions. In 2015, Brazil passed a bill that has been in the works since 2003: the Inclusion of People With Disabilities Act. This bill provides clearer definitions for classifying people with disabilities, as well as allocating more resources for the disabled population. For example, at least three percent of public housing, 10 percent of taxi grants, and two percent of parking lots will be reserved for people with disabilities.

Raising Awareness and Providing Aid

Aside from China and Brazil’s strong correlations between disability and poverty, disabled communities are universally more disadvantaged and vulnerable to a lower-income status. However, many countries are dedicated to raising awareness about the intersectionality between disability and socioeconomic status. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) has been ratified in at least 177 countries and has subsequently led these countries in allocating aid for people with disabilities. Along with the convention, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development made a universal framework that provides guidelines for protecting disabled persons from discrimination in areas such as education, employment, and the workplace.

Smaller organizations have also taken on roles to improve the socioeconomic status of the disabled community. For example, the Christoffel-Blindenmission (CBM) International is an NGO organization that provides job opportunities, healthcare, and education for people with a range of disabilities. Since 1908, this organization has supported at least 672 projects across 68 countries and eventually provided resources to over 10.1 million people. Another example is the Emergency Ong Onlus, an Italian foundation that has reached over 16 million people across 16 countries with free medical care. Primarily specializing in humanitarian relief, the foundation focuses on four intervention areas: surgery, medication, rehabilitation, and social reintegration.

Issues regarding disabled victims of poverty are often neglected and met with discrimination in many countries, including the United States. However, numbers of organizations and local projects are strenuously putting effort into resolving this ongoing humanitarian problem. With the current mass mobilization, there is definite hope in the future of providing equitable opportunities to one of the most vulnerable communities.

– Aishwarya Thiyagarajan
Photo: Flickr

 

China during COVID-19Amid a global pandemic, every nation is doing what it determines best to eradicate the COVID-19 virus. As of June 18, China reported 28 active cases and 0 fatalities. China even brings in people that have been exposed or too close contact. It released 153 people from exposure observation. While nations have methods that differ from one another, China is minimizing the number of cases substantially. These are five facts about China during COVID-19.

5 Facts China During COVID-19: Early Months

  1. China shut down its major operations by late December. The government worked to contain the spread of the virus by closing public transportation and non-essential businesses. Officials took to disinfecting the streets and testing at every facility. However, by February, the hospitals still became overloaded with COVID-19 virus patients.
  2. Hospitals organized a counseling hotline for citizens to call and locate beds in hospitals that were available. The volunteers that run the hotline then record the information and keep active track of open beds in local hospitals to ensure no bed was going unused. The quicker they can locate open beds, the sooner hospitals can care for patients. The hotline also offered counseling services.
  3. As of June 17, there was a full sweep testing spree to determine any straggling cases. There were 91 confirmed imported cases, all non-severe. On top of this, there were 265 confirmed cases among 31 different provinces. Nine of those cases were severe. Hospitals were able to discharge 78,394, considering them cured. The governments had traced and contacted 754,966 people who had been in close contact with someone with COVID-19. Because of China’s vigilant virus tracing, each region is caring for its sick as needed and 5,220 of those traced are under observation.
  4. In Beijing, in May, for the first time since December students are back to in-person learning with the guidelines in place to accommodate social distancing and facial protection masks. Schools are placing the students’ desks three feet apart. Both instructors and students are wearing masks.
  5. Tourist sites are reopening, but they are limiting attendance. Shanghai Disneyland opened in May. After being on lockdown since December, Hubei has contained the virus after five months. The province has gone one month with no new cases. Every case has been reported and everyone has been tested and under observation. Any Chinese national traveling outside of China must go into isolated quarantine for 14 days after arriving home. This gives them the ability to travel safely without being restricted to lockdown any further.

Success So Far

China has taken exceptional measures to eradicate the COVID-19 virus and prevent any further spread. So far, it has been able to slowly reopen during COVID-19 and still keeping the case numbers to a dwindling minimum. China is determining how to maintain social activities while keeping citizens safe. These five facts about China during COVID-19 show that good safety practices and diligence may be key to reopening during the virus. Hopefully, this practice will continue to keep the numbers of patients down. Clearly, citizens and officials alike are taking these measures and precautions seriously.

Kim Elsey
Photo: Flickr

inequality in chinaChina, a vast country harboring nearly 1.4 billion people, is situated in East Asia. In 1944, China, one of the four Allied powers during the Second World War, became a pillar in forming what would later become the United Nations. Furthermore, China has become one of the fastest growing nations throughout the world. Despite its longstanding partnership with the U.N. and its rapid economic growth, widespread inequality and poverty still exist in China. Here are seven facts about inequality in China.

7 Facts About Inequality in China

  1. Income inequality is due to many systemic factors. Location within the country, families, lineage and hukou (home registration) play a vital role in individuals’ income. Another element is the swift economic expansion that has overtaken the country, which many view as a necessity for the country’s development.
  2. Rapid economic expansion has both hindered and helped China. In 1978, China opted to expand its economy, which has made its GDP rise by nearly 10% annually. The swift growth has allowed over 850 million people — more than half of the population — to remove themselves from poverty. However, 373 million people still make $5 a day on average in China. Due to China’s rapid expansion, inequality across social, economic and environmental spheres persists.
  3. The merit-based Hukou system plays a pivotal role in the income gap between urban and rural locations. Moreover, it hinders rural workers from migrating and contributing to the larger urban centers spread across the country. China’s eastern seaboard is home to numerous densely populated cities, which has left the western regions predominantly rural. This system favors the upper echelon of society while discriminating against former farmers from villages.
  4. China has 23 provinces, yet five are autonomous. These self-governing regions include Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. Taiwan is considered a province yet it still has its currency, localized government and the national flag. Hong Kong and Macau are considered administrative regions, with the former set to be absorbed by the mainland in the coming years.
  5. In 1979, Mao Zedong, founding father of the People’s Republic of China, implemented a one-child policy that aimed to control the rapidly growing nation. More than three decades later, the country changed the policy to allow for two children per family in 2015. Despite strict efforts to diminish the surge in population, China still has a large proportion of children across all developing nations and a significant child poverty issue.
  6. Child poverty is a big issue in a country of nearly 1.4 billion. China holds one out of every five children across the developing world. Child poverty in China is a generational issue that can be traced back to family dynamics. However, the country is providing social assistance for children attending their education and for being fed an adequate amount. This strategy is known as a conditional cash transfer, and it helps children climb out of poverty.
  7. Healthcare hurts the poor. Nearly 200 million farmers have fled their respective regions to find work in cities, but the China has adopted a “pay first, claim later” form of healthcare. China has aimed to tackle healthcare through its rural poverty alleviation program; however, high medical expenses have adversely affected rural populations.

Despite China’s rapid economic growth, the country has suffered and experienced backlash over its imbalance in the social welfare of its citizens, its impact on climate change and the economy. These facts about inequality in China highlight elements that have played a role in perpetuating inequality and how it has predominantly affected those from rural settings. However, the country is determined to turn the tide on these challenges and has made headway moving forward, supported by the U.N.

– Michael Santiago
Photo: Needpix