Female Genital Mutilation in ChadThe World Health Organization defines female genital mutilation as “any procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” Despite constituting an international human rights violation, FGM remains a pervasive issue affecting the lives of many women, especially in developing countries. According to UNICEF, at least 200 million girls and women have undergone genital mutilation globally. FGM is particularly prevalent in Chad, a landlocked country in Northern Africa, despite laws banning female genital mutilation in Chad. Over the years, steps have been taken to reduce the prevalence of FGM in Chad.

The Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation in Chad

BMC Public Health explains that, in Chad, the citizenry continues FGM practices in both religious and traditional contexts. FGM is a hazardous practice, often done without anesthetic, putting girls and women at risk of both short and long-term health effects. These effects include genital swelling, bleeding, the inability to pass feces and urine, urinary tract infections and birth complications, among other consequences.

A BMC Public Health research article based on data from 2014-2015 indicates that, in Chad, 50.2% of women and 12.9% of girls have been genitally mutilated, endangering their health. There are multiple conditions that affect this staggering statistic. First, BMC Public Health explains that women with lower levels of education are more likely to experience FGM. Poverty levels also drive the practice as impoverished families have their daughters undergo FGM with the intention of marrying them off, granting impoverished families dowries and the benefits of marrying into a wealthier family. The practice of FGM tends to follow ethnic and religious traditions and is most common among the Sara ethnic group and other Muslim tribes.

Addressing FGM in Chad

While FGM prevalence has been decreasing throughout much of the world, Chad, Mali and Sierra Leone have seen an increase of 2–8% over the last 30 years. This increase in prevalence demonstrates the importance of efforts addressing FGM in Chad, especially now, when poverty rates are heightened due to COVID-19. With the help of NGOs, the U.S. government and tribal leaders, Chad is fighting the deeply entrenched traditions of FGM to protect the well-being of young women and girls.

NGOs play a vitally important role in the creation of long-term programs aimed at changing societal and cultural norms surrounding female genital mutilation in Chad. These NGOs can expand their reach with support from the Chadian government. For example, the Chadian government aided the Chadian Association for Family Well-Being in its work surrounding FGM education and awareness. This education includes seminars, campaigns and conferences explaining the dangers of FGM.

The Role of the US

Not only has Chad’s government stepped up to combat FGM but the U.S. has played a critical role in education surrounding FGM practices. From 1997 to 1999, the U.S. Embassy’s Democracy and Human Rights Fund supported a locally implemented FGM education program to change norms surrounding FGM in Chad. This resulted in a roundtable meeting with “doctors, judges, parliamentarians and NGO representatives, a national seminar” and four regional seminars, all of which helped spread awareness of the dangers of FGM in Chad.

Mobilizing Tribal Leaders to Fight FGM

Due to the cultural and ethnic ties surrounding the practice of female genital mutilation in Chad, tribal leaders have played an important part in the movement to end FGM. Because of the trust bestowed upon tribal leaders, they can increase awareness about FGM’s consequences and generate support for the laws banning its practice among ethnic groups throughout the country. In order to motivate and educate tribal leaders, the Red Cross of Chad set up an advocacy program that creates initiatives and training sessions for tribal leaders to combat FGM in their communities.

While the inhumane practice of FGM continues in Chad due to deeply entrenched cultural roots, the U.S. and Chadian governments play consequential roles in combating the prevalence of FGM. This support is crucial as female genital mutilation in Chad severely harms girls’ and women’s health, impacting their futures and their abilities to rise out of poverty.

Haylee Ann Ramsey-Code
Photo: Flickr

Food Insecurity in Chad
Citizens of Chad suffer from food insecurity and malnutrition. This is due to a number of reasons such as geographical location. Humanitarian crises and poverty have impacted approximately 6.3 million Chadians. However, three notable organizations are working to fight food insecurity in Chad including Action Against Hunger, CARE and the World Food Program U.S.A. (WFP). These groups are working to ensure a direct solution, by providing food to Chad’s citizens. Moreover, these programs are attempting to implement long-term solutions, such as creating more fiscal opportunities and supplying clean water.

Food Insecurity in Chad

The country’s geographical location does not provide a reliable agricultural system. Chad is a landlocked country without any bodies of water. The country’s location also entails a hot, dry climate and the country experiences periods of drought. This has led to a lack of water for drinking and producing food. Moreover, conflict with bordering countries has applied further pressure to Chad’s limited resources. This has led to political instability, social unrest and a great influx of refugees. The country has accepted around 465,000 refugees from Sudan and the Central African Republic. Lack of food supply has resulted in over 317,000 children suffering from acute malnutrition in 2019. An estimated 790,000 inhabitants in Chad live with food insecurity.

Action Against Hunger

In 2019, Action Against Hunger helped 579,092 Chadians combat food insecurity. The organization reached those in need with programs focusing on nutrition and health, sanitation and hygiene and food security and livelihood. Action Against Hunger has worked to create solutions for the long term. For example, it initiated health and nutrition courses in Kanem, Bar El Gazal and Logone Oriental. Moreover, to promote behavioral change, the organization implemented husbands’ schools and care groups.

Action Against Hunger has also provided emergency, short-term and long-term solutions directly related to food. This includes supplying food, teaching new agricultural techniques (solar-powered irrigation systems and farmers’ field schools) and providing job opportunities to young people and women.

CARE

Although CARE does not directly focus on food relief, it offers a number of programs to improve the well-being of Chadians into the future. This includes initiatives such as natural resource management, farming classes and education on water and sanitation.

World Food Program USA (WFP)

WFP has partnered with the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Food for Peace to provide nourishment to underserved Chadians. The organizations collect food from producers in the United States and local markets. They also distribute food vouchers, cash transfers and specialized nutrition products to struggling Chadians.

WFP has three other initiatives that it focuses on titled Emergency Operation, the School Meals Program and Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation.

  • Emergency Operation: This program focuses on those seeking refuge in southern Chad. WFP provides them with nourishment, food vouchers and e-cards, and gives nutrition support for mothers and children.
  • School Meals Program: This initiative seeks to increase school attendance, specifically amongst girls. The school meals program reaches approximately 265,000 elementary school children. All students in attendance receive a hot meal and girls can take a monthly ration of oil home to their families. This in turn encourages parents to send their daughters to school, and thus increases the rate of educated females.
  • Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation: This program can assist up to 2.2 million Chadians and refugees in need. Health centers and clinics provide supplementary feeding to local and conflicted populations.

Despite food insecurity in Chad, the country is benefitting from significant aid from prominent organizations. Through these organization’s continued support, Chad should be able to improve nutrition for its entire population in time.

– Ella Kaplun
Photo: Flickr

Chad's Food Security
Chad’s food security is a persistent issue and challenge. More than 2 million people suffer from malnutrition, and 43% of children under 5-years-old have developed stunting due to malnutrition. In total, 3.7 million people experience food insecurity in Chad. Fortunately, many great organizations work to reduce food insecurity. These organizations include The World Food Programme (WFP), The World Bank and The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States (FAO).

The World Food Programme (WFP)

The World Food Programme has provided food assistance to 1.4 million people in Chad. Furthermore, this organization has provided food assistance and school meals to 370,000 refugees and 135,000 children.

WFP worked with other nonprofits on a project in Farchana, a refugee camp in Chad in 2018. This project allowed about 30,000 people to unite and help build a more self-reliant, food-secure community. The project consisted of reworking the landscape and providing workers with money to purchase food or other necessities. According to WFP, “The work done by both host communities and refugees expands the availability and diversity of food produced and consumed locally, and ensures that local food production and income-generating activities can continue through shocks and crises.”

Furthermore, WFP has developed a strategic plan for 2019-2023 that includes how the organization plans to aid in improving Chad’s food security. The nonprofit will help ensure that people in targeted areas have access to food year-round, meet their basic food needs and have more self-sustaining ways of obtaining food. WFP also hopes to increase the nutritional levels in the population and make sure the government can help feed the population.

The World Bank

The World Bank has supported over 50 projects in Chad and is currently working on 19 projects. This organization launched the Emergency Food and Livestock Crisis Response AF project in 2017. The project aimed to “improve the availability of and access to food and livestock productive capacity for targeted beneficiaries.” Additionally, the project received an $11.6 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) that focuses on social protection, agriculture, fishing and forestry, livestock and crops.

The World Bank approved a $75 million grant from the IDA to continue the Refugees and Host Communities Support Project for Chad (PARCA) in September 2020. PARCA has helped improve the lives of impoverished and vulnerable people in the country. The project is set to end in 2025 and has received a rating of “moderately satisfactory” as of October 2020.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO)

The FAO has been working hard to improve Chad’s food security for the past several years. Furthermore, the World Bank published an analysis of a project that the FAO and other organizations contributed to in 2019. This project consisted of providing agricultural knowledge and tools to people in Goré, a town in Southern Chad. In addition, the project aided almost 500,000 people and established a process for the community to feed itself year-round at an affordable price.

The FAO provided “emergency agricultural assistance to vulnerable populations” in 2019. Additionally, the organization helped just under 300,000 people improve their agricultural output and prevented them from suffering from future climate inconsistencies or disasters.

The FAO completed the Sustainable Revitalization of Agricultural Systems project which aided about 4,000 people in 2020. In addition, it provided irrigation systems and fences to protect crops. The project succeeded in increasing agricultural yields.

Chad rates 187/189 on the Human Development Index and 66.2% of the population lives in severe poverty.  Despite these struggles, organizations are helping improve the lives of the people. The government of Chad has also been working to help improve the lives of its population. Chad created a plan to improve Chadians’ quality of life by developing human and social capital, social protection and economic empowerment by the end of 2021.

– Sophie Shippe
Photo: Flickr

Poverty Rate Reduction
The World Bank published an analysis in 2019 of the 15 countries with the greatest poverty rate reduction from 1999-2015. Of those 15 countries, Tanzania, Tajikistan, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and The Kyrgyz Republic were the most successful in reducing poverty. While some of these five countries are continuing to reduce their poverty levels, others have recently faced hardships, stagnating their ability to eradicate poverty.

5 Leaders in Poverty Reduction

  1. Tanzania: Tanzania saw a poverty rate reduction of 3.2% from 2000-2011. Moreover, its poverty rate is continuing to reduce as from 2007-2018, the poverty rate fell from 34.4% to 26.4%, and the extreme poverty rate fell from 11.7% to 8%. However, the wealth gap increased during that same time period, with the Gini coefficient rising from 38.5 to 39.5. This uptick in the wealth gap may be due to the fact that education and sanitation have become more accessible in cities but not rural areas. However, despite this increase, Tanzania is persisting in reducing its levels of poverty.
  2. Tajikistan: Tajikistan reduced its poverty levels by 3.1% from 1999-2015. Poverty rates fluctuate in Tajikistan depending on job availability and remittance. However, the poverty rate mostly remains on the decline in Tajikistan, albeit it is slower than in the past. From 2012-2017, the poverty rate fell by 7.5%, but now it is decreasing about 1% per year on average. The poverty rate has been decreasing slower because the remittances that Tajikistan has received have lessened over the past few years. Additionally, COVID-19 has negatively affected the economy, causing more food insecurity. Fortunately, expectations have determined that the country will recover quickly from this downfall.
  3. Chad: Chad experienced a reduced poverty rate of 3.1% from 2003-2011. The projected number of impoverished people in Chad increased from 4.7 million to 6.3 million from 2011-2019. Additionally, Chad ranks last on the World Bank’s Human Capital Index. The good news is that many nonprofit organizations are working to help decrease the poverty rate in Chad. The World Food Bank has established many support systems and has helped 1.4 million people so far. The International Development Association (IDA) improved learning conditions for over 300,000 elementary school children from 2013-2018. The IDA also provided health support for over 50,000 people from 2014-2018. These are only two examples of organizations that work to improve the quality of life of the people and reduce the poverty rate in Chad.
  4. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): The DRC reduced its poverty rate by 2.7% from 2005-2011. It remains low on the Human Captial Index with 72% of people living in extreme poverty. Yet, like in Chad, there are many nonprofits working to help reduce the poverty rate in the DRC. For example, the IDA helped 1.8 million people receive health services and provided work support programs for 1 million displaced people through 2018. The United Nations Capital Development Fund has been working in the DRC since 2004 and helps create a more financially inclusive environment. Even though the country has a long way to go, the hard work of these organizations shows a promising future for the DRC.
  5. The Kyrgyz Republic: The Kyrgyz Republic reduced its poverty levels by 2.6% from 2000-2015. The Kyrgyz Republic’s economy has experienced fluctuations since 2010 and remains vulnerable. Many citizens live close to the poverty line. However, the poverty rate in rural areas continues to steadily decline. Like Tajikistan, COVID-19 negatively impacted The Kyrgyz Republic’s economy. On July 30, 2020, the World Bank decided to finance three projects that will help “mitigate the unprecedented health, economic and social challenges caused by the…pandemic.” One of these initiatives includes direct financial help for up to 200,000 poor families. Overall, the Kyrgyz Republic has prevailed in reducing the poverty rate and increasing access to healthcare and education in the past 20 years.

Looking Forward

While some countries have regressed in poverty rate reduction, others continue to decrease poverty rates. However, good news exists even for countries with increased poverty rates. Nonprofits work to provide relief, aid and policy changes that help those in poverty.

Sophie Shippe
Photo: Flickr

Environmental Change in Chad
In the 1960s, the country Chad had one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world, Lake Chad. Since then, Lake Chad and the rest of the country have undergone a dramatic environmental change. Environmental change is a widely-understood concept, but too many only know this through media portrayal. Media often presents it as a local rather than a global issue, and solutions tend to suffer from the same presentation. Here is some information about environmental change in Chad.

Lake Chad

Rural communities in the Lake Chad region depend on agro-pastoral and fishing activities. The water loss has made this highly dependent hydro-climate area difficult to live in. Its 430,000 inhabitants have had to adjust to the constant environmental change and new challenges. In the 1980s, the annual maximum flooded area of the lake varied from 25,000 kilometers. Today, that has reduced to 10,000 kilometers.

Correlation between the hydro-climate, increased violence and population growth could provide insight into detection challenges, such as shortfall of agricultural production, and identify solutions to prevent food insecurity. Seasonal changes, lake levels and local rainfall are essential to understanding future adaptations.

Community and Violence

In the 1960s, it was easy to share the water of Lake Chad, but today there is competition for the little water that remains. The rise in extreme weather conditions, which for Chad are primarily heat-related, links to conflict and violence. Moreover, the lack of shade in the area contributes to competition and violence. Human behavior becomes just as complicated as the environment undergoes further destruction. The temperature reaches over 40 degrees Celsius and 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Violence has taken many forms in Chad and has led to the genocide of many Chadians. Here are some examples:

  • Children: The political conflicts have led to extreme violence against children that often results in death. Children are vulnerable to becoming child soldiers and victims of human trafficking. Many children end up orphans because of widespread diseases including AIDS. Those who live in rural areas experience these dangers the most because they often perform work that leaves them alone and vulnerable. Children also suffer from malnutrition and, due to the lack of advanced healthcare and healthcare workers, a high infant mortality rate exists. It is common for women to give birth without the assistance of medical professionals.
  • Religion: Opposing religious groups in Chad have taken matters into their own hands. They are deciding what is sinful and enforcing punishment that results in the death of and violence against young girls. Education has become a source of violent attacks against Chadians as religious groups prevent growing western education in these communities.
  • Poverty: About 63% of Chad’s population lives in poverty. The struggle to find food makes people living in poverty extremely vulnerable to extremism. With such a high percentage of the population struggling to find food day-to-day, community members can also become competitive with one another.

Women

Indigenous women who are suffering from the declining resources due to environmental change in Chad have taken lead in promoting change, using their own experiences as examples of the consequences of a deteriorating climate. Illiteracy among Chadians affects 32% of the population, as does the scarcity of medical health care workers. Large-scale agriculture is not directly affecting Chad, since it is practically non-existent. While it is true the men control what happens within these communities, women are often the heads of the family. In terms of the number of challenges that they struggle with to solve to protect their families, they are better able to provide insight into the needs of their communities.

The shifting climates often mean that the men who do work have multiple livelihoods as the seasons change. Women and children have to adapt to finding water and natural remedies to illnesses. Many often overlook their significance and not just in their communities. Some also see them as victims, as opposed to the communities who work hard to adjust to changes that are a result of their environmental degradation. Women have both knowledge and experience that provides the world with opportunities to better understand the importance of protecting and caring for the environment. In many instances, the communities have already learned to survive.

The future of Chad will depend on preventative measures and promoting peace. One should not interpret violence in communities as the fault of the community, but rather the community’s need to survive. It is difficult to maintain reason when fighting for one’s own life and one’s family. Understanding communities in countries such as Chad not just as unfortunate but as an example of the urgency for change in how the world approaches environmental change and solutions.

World For TCHAD

Guy Boypa is the founder of World for TCHAD. He was born in Chad but spent most of his life in France. When he visited Chad as an adult, he found his friends and family living in ruins due to lack of water and harsh living conditions. Boypa initiated the change he wanted to see as many women have been taking action in pursuit of change.

World for TCHAD is working in Chad to provide wells that make free water obtainable to Chadians, in addition to collecting donations to provide children and families with education and self-care supplies. Local French artists, including musicians and comedians, stay involved and raise awareness in the French community. Aligning with the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), World for TCHAD is addressing environmental change while taking action. The organization recognizes the burden this is particularly on women and children who take on the pursuit to collect water every day.

So far, the organization has provided over 20,000 Chadians with clean drinking water from 26 wells, with the 2021 goal of adding 10 more. It is currently active in Chari-Baguirmi and Hadjer-Lamis regions and plans to expand into the Mayo-Kebbi East region. Between 2014 and 2015, 208 community wells were drilled and 14 human motor pumps supplied 13,000 villagers. About 74% of Chadians currently have access to unclean and unhealthy drinking water. World for TCHAD wants to provide for more than half of them.

Zoe Schlagel
Photo: Flickr

Sustainable Development in Chad
Chad, a landlocked country in Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the poorest countries in the world. With a poverty rate of around 40%, Chad’s life expectancy is only 58.3 years. Only two million of the roughly four million people in dire need of assistance are actually receiving any. Additionally, Chad is surrounded by countries undergoing civil wars, putting further pressure on its infrastructure through refugee flows and inhibiting sustainable development in Chad.

Chad was also hit especially hard by the HIV/AIDS epidemic, with 120,000 people living with HIV in 2018. HIV/AIDS in Chad spread quickly due to a lack of healthcare infrastructure. The country has very few healthcare workers. There are only 3.7 doctors for every 100,000 people throughout the entire country. This is even worse in rural areas, given that healthcare workers are concentrated in just 1 region. In this 1 region, 65% of the entire country of Chad’s doctors practice medicine.

Africare Background

Fortunately, some organizations are stepping in order to try and solve this problem through sustainable development. These organizations believe that the best way to ensure that Chad can grow and reduce poverty is to build business infrastructure locally to create long-term growth. One such organization is Africare. Founded as a partnership between Africans and Americans in 1970, this organization has since grown to span much of the continent. Overall, they have donated approximately $2 billion dollars since 1970 towards developing the economies of 38 African countries.

Africare in Chad

The focus of Africare is on sustainable development, attempting to build enough capacity within countries to make sure the country can sustain itself and reduce poverty in the long term. One notable program in Chad is the Initiative for the Economic Empowerment of Women Entrepreneurs (IEEWEP). The IEEWP, founded in 2008 seeks to uplift communities by providing education, skills training, and economic assistance to women in order to allow them to start businesses. The ultimate goal is to foster sustainable development in Chad.

Success Stories

The IEEWP has been a big success. The projects to develop human capital have already generated returns. Within the first three years of its existence, 1,600 women were trained by the IEEWP, increasing their incomes by 60%. Africare has also encouraged women to become more involved and take more of a leadership role at a local level. One important way they accomplish this is by making sure that 95% of their field staff are women, thus ensuring that women possess a voice within the communities they serve. Putting women at the forefront of the organization, Africare hopes, can help create sustainable development in Chad.

The IEEWP works by partnering with local communities and entrepreneurs in order to support them. In one program, the IEEWP worked with a group of 18 existing entrepreneurs in order to start a restaurant. In 2006, 18 women, calling themselves “Mbailassem” or “God help us”, partnered to produce cassava together on a farm. Seeing their drive, the IEEWP decided to help Mbailassem start a restaurant in Southern Chad.

After initially assisting in running the restaurant, and helping with some financial objectives, the restaurant eventually became economically sustainable and paid their loans back within a year. The women of Mbailassem also succeeded in starting a new location of their restaurant, further improving both their own economic situation and the economic situation of the communities they are working in. Africare hopes that entrepreneurs like Mbailassem can help build sustainable development in Chad, and ultimately all across Africa.

Moving Forward

Overall, Chad is struggling to see long-term growth across the country. However, progress on a smaller scale in individual communities concerning the growth of businesses shows some promise. Applying this same model in various communities across the country could help foster sustainable development in Chad.

Thomas Gill

Photo: Flickr

Five Innovations in Poverty Eradication in Chad 
Chad is a land-locked country
 with sporadic rain patterns and regular droughts, but it has not given up its hope of ending poverty. With a population of approximately 15.5 million people, 66.2% of the population live in severe poverty with little access to clean water, healthcare and education. However, this has not stopped the Government of Chad or partnering organizations from aiding in the country’s advancement. Here are five innovations in poverty eradication in Chad.

5 Innovations in Poverty Eradication in Chad

  1. Bharti Airtel: This telecommunication company has operations in 20 countries in Africa and AsiaIt has made it its mission to invest in human capital in Africa, proposing that tech training and literacy are key in African economic development and that they can open doors for knowledge and education that can empower the younger generation. Over 6,000 people will benefit from the ICT training programs Airtel is implementing in Chad. 
  2. ResEau Project: The ResEau Project is making great advances in aiding the reduction of water scarcity in Chad. In Chad, 57.5% of the population lacks access to basic water services. Additionally, only 6% of citizens receive water from unsafe open sources such as rivers. The ResEau Project is working with the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation and the Government of Chad to create 3D models and map well sites and other water sources. Since the ResEau Project started working in Chad, the success rate for water drilling has gone from 30% up to 60%.
  3. Chad Education Sector Reform Project (PARSET): The Chad Education Sector Reform Project has been working on providing primary education to children. It has built and supplied 500 schools and trained over 13,000 teachers. In addition, the program has improved the rate of children attending school from 87% to 96%. It has taught upwards of 20,000 children to read and write, and about 60% of the students are girls. Moreover, many children have struggled to have access to education as most of the population is displaced and their families need them at home to help provide water and other necessities. The project started in 2013 and will continue through the fall of 2020.
  4. Emergency Agriculture Production Support Project: In this project, The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Food Program (WFP) are providing food vouchers and nutritional supplements for malnourished children. Chad faces major food scarcity due to frequent drought, lack of access to social services and the effects of regional conflict. In 2020 alone, approximately 1.8 million children 5 years old and younger will suffer from malnutritionThe agricultural production and livestock stabilization component of this project has provided over 30,000 households with agricultural equipment, seeds and fertilizer. Over 10,000 households received training in production techniques and more modern agricultural technologies
  5. Gavi The Vaccine Alliance: The Gavi Vaccine Alliance has provided vaccines to countries in poverty for years, preventing over 13 million deaths. The Gavi Vaccine Alliance has frequently partnered with leading organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Bank, the World Health Organization, developing countries, vaccine manufacturers, private sector partners and research agencies to provide vaccinations against debilitating and deadly diseases. The Gavi Vaccine Alliance provides vaccines for measles, pneumonia, typhoid, cholera, rotavirus, yellow fever, hepatitis B and tetanus among several others. As the organization continued its work in Chad, difficulties arose with nomadic peoples with the organizations’ conventional outreach and vaccine opportunities. In fact, only 3% of children in Batha are receiving basic vaccinations. Gavi started a “One Health” approach to this and has seen great results. The program vaccinates children and animals in one setting. Additionally, at the same time, the program tries to provide convenience and efficiency to the nomadic peoples. 

Chad is working hard to lift its people out of poverty. This is evident in its unique approaches in important areas such as agriculture and livestock, education and technology access, life-saving vaccines and access to clean water. Increasing access to education and technological literacy along with high child vaccination rates in several areas should heavily aid in bringing a generation out of poverty. In addition, they should have opportunities in their adult lives to continue to work on even more innovations to further the success of their country

Madalyn Wright
Photo: Flickr

healthcare in Chad
Chad is in the top ten countries for oil production in Africa. However, very little of the revenue of oil sales goes into improving the living conditions and healthcare in Chad.
 In Chad, it is reported that 66% of the population is living in poverty. The World Bank reported in 2018 that 88% of the Chadian population does not have access to electricity. Additionally, it is estimated that 44% of the population does not have access to clean drinking water. These factors create obstacles for the healthcare system. Here is what you need to know about healthcare in Chad.  

Access to Health Services 

Chad has a very low number of healthcare professionals. The World Health Organization reported that there are 3.7 doctors per 100,000 people. This number is well below the global average of 141 doctors per 100,000 people. The number of healthcare professionals remains low in Chad due to the many insecurities the Chadian population faces. Due to ongoing violence, 122,312 people have been internally displaced in Chad. This factor causes an obstacle that inhibits the population from seeking education and training. 

Chad spends approximately $30 per capita on healthcare. Spending on healthcare in Chad fell by $14 per capita from 2014 to 2017. The decrease in funding has caused many healthcare facilities to be poorly equipped and unable to pay healthcare workers, leaving the Chadian population with minimal access to medical services. 

Maternal Health 

Maternal health is considered to be a major indicator of the strength of a healthcare system in a country. Currently, in Chad, 80% of births are not attended by a skilled professional, whereas in the United States, only 1% of births are not attended by a skilled professional. This lack of access to maternal health professionals causes Chad to have one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. In 2017, the World Health Organization reported the mortality rate in Chad to be 1,140 deaths per 100,000 live births. This number is far higher than neighboring countries such as Sudan and Libya, who have mortality rates of 295 and 72 deaths per 100,000 live births, respectively.

The lack of access to maternal healthcare in Chad is made more severe by many young teenage girls becoming pregnant in Chad. UNICEF reported that 68% of girls below the age of 18 are married and under five percent of these girls have access to contraception. The World Health Organization cites that maternal complications are the leading cause of death in girls aged 15 to 19 years old. Mothers under 18 years old are also more likely to experience systemic infections and neonatal complications. These complications can become fatal to young mothers in Chad due to the lack of access to maternal health services.  

Malnutrition

Chad experiences some of the highest levels of malnutrition in the world. In the central Chadian town of Borko, almost half of all child deaths are due to malnutrition. Also, 40% of Chadian children experience growth stunting due to a lack of access to food. Chad goes through periods of severe drought causing food insecurity and lack of income for many families. The Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) has set up a hospital in Chad. ALIMA reported that the malnutrition ward is overrun and the organization had to expand malnutrition treatment services to cope with the demand. 

The Burden of Diarrheal Disease

Diarrheal disease is among the leading causes of disease burden in developing countries. In 2017, diarrheal disease caused 1.6 million deaths globally and 528,000 of these deaths occurred in children under the age of five. In Chad, mortality due to diarrheal disease is 300 per 100,000 people. Chad’s diarrheal mortality rate is higher than the mortality rate observed in developed countries, which is reported to be 1 per 100,000 people. Diarrheal diseases are perceived to be treatable; however, they are highly fatal in Chad due to the lack of healthcare services.

Healthcare Improvements

Due to the instability in Chad, external organizations are working to improve the living conditions and access to healthcare in Chad. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has partnered with the United Nations to provide immunizations and sanitary facilities to Chadian children. The initiative aims to decrease the mortality rates of diarrheal disease and other communicable diseases such as measles and pneumonia. 

Doctors Without Borders is another organization working to improve the conditions in Chad. The organization is currently running projects in six different areas around Chad. In 2018, these programs conducted 142,400 health consultations. Doctors Without Borders focuses healthcare efforts towards treating and preventing malaria, HIV/AIDS and malnutrition.  

The World Food Programme has established the School Meals Program to help decrease childhood malnutrition. The program ensures that all children at elementary school receive a hot meal throughout the school day. The program also encourages families to send their daughters to school by giving girls in grades five and six a ration of oil to take home. The School Meals Program aims to feed 265,000 elementary-aged children.

Healthcare in Chad faces many challenges regarding the high burden of disease, political instability and low availability of healthcare training. With a heavy reliance on outside organizations, the Chadian healthcare system needs to improve to be able to effectively tackle these challenges. Healthcare in Chad requires foreign aid funding to be able to increase access to healthcare and properly train medical professionals. The United States currently spends less that one-percent of its annual budget on foreign aid. With increased funding, the United States government has the power to increase healthcare for the Chadian population.

Laura Embry

Photo: Flickr

Poverty in ChadLocated in Central Africa, the country of Chad is the fifth largest landlocked state and has a poverty rate of 66.2%. With a total population of approximately 15.5 million, a lack of modern medicine, dramatic weather changes and poor education have riddled the country with deadly diseases and resulted in severe poverty in Chad.

Poor Health Conditions in Chad Lead to Disease

The most common types of disease and the primary causes of death include malaria, respiratory infections and HIV/AIDS. Malaria, usually spread through mosquito bites, is a potentially fatal disease and is quite common in the country of Chad. Due to poor sanitation, Chadians are more susceptible to malaria; the most recently estimated number of cases was 500,000 per year.

Along with malaria, lower respiratory diseases contribute to Chad’s high mortality rate – the most common and deadliest of those being meningitis.  Lower respiratory tract infections occur in the lungs and can sometimes affect the brain and spinal cord. A lack of available vaccinations in the country has increased susceptibility to meningitis. Meningitis is most deadly in those under the age of 20, and with a countrywide median age of 16.6 years old, Chad has seen a rise in total meningitis cases and overall deaths.

As of 2015, there were an estimated 210,000 Chadians living with HIV. According to UNAIDS, there were 12,000 AIDS-related deaths just last year, along with 14,000 new cases. Those living with HIV/AIDS are at a higher risk of death with their compromised immune systems. They are unable to fight off diseases and, with the preexisting severe risk of malaria and meningitis, they are more susceptible to death.

Harsh Weather and Its Role in Food Insecurity and Disease

Due to its geography, Chad is one of the countries most severely affected by climate change. Approximately 40% of Chadians live at or below the poverty line, with the majority relying heavily on agricultural production and fishing. The drastic change in rain patterns and the consequent frequency of droughts have placed a significant strain on their food supply. Fishing in particular has been sparse. Lake Chad, the country’s largest lake, has diminished by 90% in the past 50 years. The rising temperatures in Chad have caused a decrease in both crop yields and good pasture conditions, placing more strain on those who depend on Lake Chad for food and the nutrients it adds to farming.

In addition to affecting poverty in Chad, intense weather patterns have also increased the number of infectious diseases. The infrastructure of the country has not been able to keep up with the rapidly growing population in urban areas. This results in poor sanitation. The sanitation services are overwhelmed during floods: which contaminates the water supply.

Lack of Education Affects Poverty in Chad

Despite the relatively large population, less than half of school-aged children are enrolled in school. With attendance rates so low, the literacy rates in individuals between the ages of 15 and 24 fall; currently, they only reach 31%.  According to UNICEF, attendance rates are astonishingly low; 8% for children in upper secondary school and 13% for lower secondary school. With education rates so low, income inequality, infant and maternal deaths and stunting in children continue to rise; as a result, the overall economic growth of the country declines.

Enrollment is low in Chad due to the lack of resources in schools. With the country in severe poverty, schools remain under-resourced, both in access and infrastructure. Some schools have no classrooms and no teaching materials. Furthermore, teachers are often outnumbered 100:1. As a result, the quality of learning decreases, as does the overall attendance rate.

As of now, only 27% of primary-school-age children complete their schooling. According to UNESCO, if adults in low-income countries completed their secondary education, the global poverty rate would be cut in half. Even learning basic reading skills could spare approximately 171 million people from living in extreme poverty. Educated individuals are more likely to develop important skills and abilities needed to help them overcome poverty. Education also decreases an individual’s risk of vulnerability to disease, natural disasters and conflict.

Poverty in Chad is widespread, and the rate of impoverished people will continue to grow if it is not addressed. Poor health conditions and a lack of education are just a few of the many problems people face; while the living conditions may seem dire in Chad, a gradual decrease in overall poverty rates proves that there is hope.

Jacey Reece
Photo: Flickr

facts about sanitation in ChadChad is a country highly dependent on agriculture with two-thirds of the population employed in such a capacity. For agriculture to thrive, water must be plentiful. However, for Chad, ensuring access to adequate water supplies has and continues to be a challenge. Additionally, the citizenry at large suffers from a lack of sanitized water, which increases the danger of disease transmission. Here are 6 facts about sanitation and access to water in Chad.

6 Facts About Sanitation in Chad

  1. Basic water services: In 2019, 61% of Chad’s population lacked access to basic water services. Many had to obtain drinking water from an improved source like a well or piped water.
  2. Open defecation: 69% of Chad’s population practices open defecation, a result of Chad being the country with the largest percentage of its population without access to a toilet. Among the poorest Chadians, access to toilets improved by 7% between 2000 and 2017. However, 88% of them still practice open defecation.
  3. Hand washing: Chad is one of 19 countries where more than 50% of the population does not have a handwashing facility. Additionally, 76% of Chad’s people have no handwashing facility in their home. This is especially salient today since the World Health Organization recommends hand hygiene as “the most effective single measure to reduce the spread of infections”.
  4. Lake Chad: This body of water borders Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad and supports the existence of 30 million people. This economically important source of water, however, has shrunk by 90% since the 1960s. For communities reliant on fishing, farming and herding, a diminishing Lake Chad translates into resource constraints and sometimes conflict.
  5. Refugee crisis: Conflict caused by Boko Haram and other insurgent groups in the region has displaced thousands of Chadians and others. For example, in Kobiteye, a refugee camp bordering the Central African Republic, 24,000 refugees live without adequate access to water.
  6. Lethality: The inability to consume clean water is costly, taking the lives of thousands in Chad. A U.N. report found children under five in conflict-affected states were “more than 20 times more likely to die” from unsafe water or lack of sanitation than from the conflict itself.

Solutions

In response to Chad’s water crisis, some organizations and governments have stepped up assistance. In 2019, World Vision Chad redirected 70% of its funding to providing safe water access. They reached 18,000 displaced refugees with 45 boreholes. A few years ago, USAID dug 113 wells that reached 35,000 people since 2008.

Other organizations are focusing on leveraging technology to improve water access. Chad’s Ministry of Water and Sanitation and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation partnered to fund the ResEau project, a 10-year 3D mapping initiative designed to improve borehole drilling. Before ResEau began, boreholes successfully reached water 30 to 40% of the time. Now, boreholes successfully reach water over 60 percent of the time.

Additionally, ResEau also contributed to creating a master’s degree program in Hydrology and GIS at the University of N’Djamena in Chad. This program has benefited more than 100 students so far, many of whom work for Chad’s Ministry of Water and Sanitation. Leapfrog, the 3D technology company that ResEau used for its geological modeling, stated that the project “will enrich the livelihood of all those who live in Chad, by providing the skills and knowledge needed for a robust integrated water management system”. Steps like these represent successes that individual donors and donor governments need to build upon.

– Jonathan Helton 
Photo: Flickr