Canada’s Foreign Aid
In 2019, the last year Canada released a complete set on Canada’s foreign aid budget and distribution, its budget increased by 4.9% from the previous year to $4.6 billion. The top five countries that Canada distributed aid to were Ethiopia ($203 million CAD) followed by Bangladesh ($199 million CAD), Afghanistan ($197 million CAD), Syria ($150 million CAD) and Mali ($140 million CAD). Canada has consistently taken part in providing foreign aid during this time period when global health is almost an unavoidable topic and has been one of many countries to step forward to combat the pandemic. Here are five successes of Canada’s foreign aid.

5 Successes of Canada’s Foreign Aid

  1. COVID-19: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, Canada has not only helped fight the virus globally by limiting case counts in its own country, but also by providing funding to vital health organizations and countries. For example, the Canadian government has provided $2 million to the World Health Organization (WHO) to assist with vulnerable countries’ preparation plans. Additionally, Canada has further committed $50 million to the WHO, continuing to help with global health efforts surrounding the effects of COVID-19. Canada has also provided China with 16 tonnes of personal protective equipment to help squash the outbreak at the epicenter. Finally, the government is also collaborating with international health regulators like the European Medicines Agency and the United States Food and Drug Administration to find suitable countermeasures to the virus and help vaccine development.
  2. Global Poverty Reduction: Canada’s foreign aid has also gone toward global poverty reduction over the last 30 years. For example, Canada launched the Development Finance Institution as part of Export Development Canada with the aim of increasing private sector investment in developing nations. The government committed $300 million toward this program and the private sector funding will prioritize initiatives in the private sector to back women and youth-led movements. The Canadian government is also trying to create more responsive programs like challenges, micro-funding and other incentive-based funding schemes.
  3. International Disarmament Efforts: Canada also uses its foreign aid in a leadership capacity to guide international disarmament efforts. The country made these strides following the 2001 9/11 attacks that sent shockwaves around the world. For example, Canada was one of the founding members of the G8 Global Partnership Against the spread of weapons and Material of mass Destruction initiative, originally receiving a budget of $20 billion over a 10 year period. Additionally, the former G8 partnership turned G7 led collective has further provided $25 billion in concise and clear programming to aid in disarmament efforts worldwide since the group’s original founding in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. Canada has also made a flagship-level contribution with the G7 led Global Partnership program by personally contributing $1.5 billion in projects to aid disarmament methods.
  4. Refugees: Canada is also implementing some of its foreign aid work back home by helping relocate refugees from Iraq and Syria to Canada. In fact, the country welcomed 25,000 refugees by February 2016, along with a further 25,000 refugees by the end of 2016. Canada has also either processed or is still in the midst of processing all the privately sponsored Syrian refugees who applied for amnesty by March 31, 2016.
  5. Sanitation: Canada’s foreign aid has also gone to international clean water measures. Some of Canada’s more notable support projects in developing nations include providing $40 million in funding to the African Water Facility, creating water infrastructure in post-war countries. Canada also gave $17.9 million to Ghana’s Enhanced Wash which allowed communities and schools better water, and the ability to practice better hygiene and further sanitation. Finally, in Peru, Bolivia and Burkina Faso, Canada supplied $17 million to the Food Security Innovation and Mobilization Initiative which allowed communities in these countries to have access to innovative technology. Some of this new technology included water pumps, but altogether the technology aided food security during the dry season.

While Canada has been a major player and helped many nations through foreign aid, Canada is still failing to meet the 0.7% Gross National Income (GNI) target G8 countries committed to by some distance, with only 0.27% GNI committed as of 2019. Canada still has room to improve, not just to alleviate global poverty, but to make good on the promises it made as part of the G8.

Sean Armstrong
Photo: Flickr

SDG Goal 1The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a set of 17 U.N. goals aiming to achieve global sustainability through smaller subgoals like eradicating poverty and moving toward clean energy. Member states of the U.N. aim to achieve all of the SDGs by 2030. Goal 1, in particular, hopes to “end poverty in all its forms everywhere.” In recent times, achieving the SDGs by the target date has become uncertain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, Canada has shown progress in meeting SDG Goal 1.

Poverty Overview

Canada is the second-largest country in the world by land area. The country has a universal healthcare system and a high standard of living. Despite this, the country is not immune to poverty. In 2018, 5.4% of Canadians were experiencing deep income poverty, which means having an income below 75% of Canada’s official poverty threshold. In addition, Canada’s indigenous population, which make up around 5% of the population, are often subject to extreme political and societal marginalization, making them more susceptible to poverty and homelessness.

Poverty remains a reality in Canada, in spite of its reputable presence on the global stage. The country has not yet met SDG Goal 1 but continues to make efforts toward it. The Canadian Government has developed several initiatives and allocated resources to attempt to meet these goals. In 2018, a budget of $49.4 million spread over 13 years was approved to help meet the SDGs.

Tracking Canada’s Poverty Progress

The Canadian Government has been funding and supporting numerous initiatives to alleviate poverty in the country. In total, since 2015, the Canadian Government has invested $22 billion in efforts to alleviate poverty and grow the middle-class. The results have been positive. In 2015, the Canadian Poverty Reduction Strategy resolved to reduce poverty by 20% before 2020. The 2015 poverty rate was 12% and this strategy aimed to achieve a 10% poverty rate by 2020. Canada achieved this goal in 2017 when the Canadian Income Report reported that the country had reached its lowest poverty rate in history.

These improvements are due to several poverty reduction initiatives. Canada’s Guaranteed Income Supplement, for example, provides monetary assistance to senior citizens with low incomes, preventing them from falling into poverty. The reforms also introduced the Canada Child Benefit, granting families with young children more financial assistance. Additionally, the Canada Workers Benefit was introduced with an aim to lift 74,000 people out of poverty.

The Canadian Government has also resolved to aid its indigenous populations. In 2010, just over 7% of individuals who identified as indigenous were found to make less than $10,000 annually. Recent government initiatives have attempted to remedy these poverty gaps, including the National Housing Strategy’s promise to help indigenous populations.

Looking Forward

While Canada is yet to meet SDG Goal 1, the country has made substantial progress in reducing poverty. As of 2018, the poverty rate was measured to be 8.7%, a decrease from the 12% poverty rate in 2015. Increased poverty-related challenges are apparent as the COVID-19 pandemic threatens people’s economic security. Still, however, the data on Canada’s progress shows just how much the country has done in the fight against poverty and the positive impact of its poverty reduction initiatives.

Maggie Sun
Photo: Flickr

How Child Care Initiatives Improve Poverty in Canada
Although poverty in Canada has significantly improved in the last decade, the problem as a whole still exists. For many, this way of living begins when a person is still a child in early stages of their development and growth. Parents of these children often do not make enough money, which is a cause of generational poverty. Because of this, many families struggle to complete both money-making and child care tasks properly. Thus, extreme poverty may not be eradicated without accessible and affordable childcare. Here are several child care initiatives in Canada working to assist impoverished parents and children.

Canada Child Benefit

The Canada Child Benefit (CCB) is a program created by the Canadian government to help relieve parents of some child care stress. By paying a tax-free fee every month, parents who need some extra support raising their children can benefit from this program. The CCB provides basic assistance such as supervision and proper medical care for children while their parents are away at work. It also accommodates for child care situations in which supervision is required for longer periods of time.

The amount of monetary assistance a parent may receive depends on a number of things. For example, how many children are present in a household or how much money a family makes. Just from the past two years, nearly 24 billion U.S. dollars have served over three and a half million Canadian families. CCB has led to a continuous decline in the number of children living in poverty in Canada, meaning families are able to strive towards a better future.

Child Care Now

Child Care Now is a non-profit organization aiming for quality child care throughout Canada. More than 700 delegates help advocate for Child Care Now. In addition, the non-profit has relieved the strain put on families to find adequate and affordable child care. From the start of Child Care Now, many areas in Canada have expanded their child care locations. In Ontario, around 100 spaces have opened with regulated care and in Manitoba, another 700 licensed spaces have opened. With its many locations, Child Care Now hopes to provide families with the affordable and quality child care they deserve.

Early Education and Child Care

Early Education and Child Care (ECEC) is a Canadian program that aims to benefit child development while children are in school. Education for young children is crucial for development because children absorb the most information at very young ages. Low-income families are provided with subsidies or sometimes even given free education for their children. According to the Conference Board of Canada, spending a dollar on education for children below five will help children gain six dollars in the future. This shows just how important it is for children to receive quality care and education.

How Child Care Initiatives Help Poverty in Canada

These initiatives are just a few that provide child care and resources to Canadian children and families in need. Investing in a low-income child’s future while they are young will only benefit their future. Without proper education for parents and children, it makes it extremely difficult for one to gain upward mobility without a resume or experience. Through child care initiatives, financially struggling families can improve their chances of economic mobility and lower rates of poverty in Canada simultaneously.

Karina Wong
Photo: Flickr

canada's indigenous populationDespite being one of the wealthiest and most productive countries in the world, Canada does not provide equally for all of its citizens. Specifically, Canada’s Indigenous population constitutes 4% of the nation’s population of about 34.7 million. Despite their name of “First Peoples,” Indigenous people in Canada receive less priority for public aid and infrastructure. Canada’s Indigenous population disproportionately lives in poverty. For example, 25% of First Nations, Métis and Inuit people live in poverty. Out of the population of First Peoples’ children, 40% live below the poverty line as well.

The Housing Crisis

Many indigenous residences are overcrowded, often in poor and unsafe conditions. Overall, 20% of Canada’s Indigenous population lives in overcrowded households, both on and off reserves. Additionally, 25% of First Nations people live in housing that is substandard. Among Canada’s homeless population, 22% are First Nations.

While high rates of poverty among First Nations people are one major contributor to the housing crisis, the limited number of homes available to them is another large problem. Estimates suggest that Canada’s Indigenous population living on reserves needs anywhere from 130,000 to 175,000 new homes. It is even more difficult to gauge the number of housing units needed to accommodate the off-reservation First Nations population. Information for off-reservation housing extends to other Indigenous populations like the Métis and Inuit.

Food Deserts

Approximately 48% of First Nation households struggle to meet their daily food needs. This rate is higher in Canada’s Alberta province, where 60% of First Nations people find it difficult to feed their families. Both of these numbers are much higher among Canada’s Indigenous population compared to the national rate of 8.4%.

Within Canada’s Indigenous population, food insecurity continues to climb. This is especially true in remote areas with little to no access to a service center. When available, these centers help the Indigenous population with food, water, housing, health and education services.

While getting food is a struggle in itself, not all meals are equally nutritious. First Nations people have an even harder time getting healthy foods due to high demand, few centers and high prices. Traditional foods, like game and fish, are also hard to come by due to pollution and industry in Canada. However, these traditional foods generally lack the preservatives and artificial sugars found in much other food. As a result, many Indigenous adults suffer dietary issues. About 82% are overweight, while 20% suffer from diabetes. Again, these rates are disproportionately high among Canada’s Indigenous population relative to the overall population.

Education and Employment

Education remains one of the most effective ways for members of impoverished communities to lift themselves out of poverty. However, under a system that treats the Indigenous population like second-class citizens, quality education is scarce. This makes it more difficult for Canada’s indigenous population to improve their quality of life.

Less than 50% of First Peoples have a high school diploma. Further, just 6% have any kind of college degree. Canada has a history of investing fewer resources into Indigenous education than in its public education. Specifically, the disparity may be as severe as investing $8,000 less per Indigenous student than per Canadian student.

This disparity between First Peoples and Canada’s population continues to affect employment trends. Unemployment rates among the Inuit, Métis and First Nations are more than double Canada’s rate. In some areas, 80% of the Indigenous population relies on welfare. Reducing the educational gap (and consequently, the employment gap) would infuse an additional $36 billion into Canada’s economy by 2026.

Employment and education disparities also exist between on-reserve and off-reserve Indigenous people. As of 2007, the high school graduation rate was up to 70% for off-reserve First Peoples. By contrast, on-reserve rates rest at about 45%. Among the Inuit population, the high school graduation rate has decreased, falling from 52% to 41%.

The Gord Downie and Chanie Wenjack Fund

In a country that’s thriving, it can be hard to believe that there are populations so deprived of resources and opportunities. The Gord Downie and Chanie Wenjack Fund (DWF) strives to build people’s awareness about the marginalization of First Peoples. It also seeks to mend the relationship between Canada and its Indigenous population through teaching their history and culture.

The donations the DWF receives go to the creation of legacy schools and spaces. For example, its Legacy School program is a partnership between the DWF and certain schools. These legacy schools educate students on the history and culture of First Peoples. The Legacy Spaces program is a similar program that partners with organizations and corporations who are passionate about mending the divide between Canada’s non-Indigenous and Indigenous populations.

In focusing on building mutual understanding, the DWF seeks a more supportive relationship between Canada’s two populations. This would serve to preserve the culture of the First Peoples. Importantly, it would also help the Canadian government to finally recognize its duty to its most marginalized population.

Catherine Lin
Photo: Flickr

quest food exchangeWhat do you think of when you hear the words “grocery store?” Perhaps you imagine a Trader Joe’s, or maybe an outdoor farmers market with plenty of fresh vegetables, fruits, grains and other goods. Others may think of grocery carts, canned goods and, of course, the frozen section. However, people whose minds wander toward these latter images likely grew up in a financially stable home. This is not always the case for the rest of the world, as many people suffer from food insecurity and hunger. Below is information about an organization called Quest Food Exchange and how it aims to solve this issue.

Food Insecurity in Canada

In 2018, 8% of the global population lived on less than $2 per day. Individuals and families living below the poverty line do not have the luxury of a traditional grocery store, fresh fruits or fresh vegetables. Many struggle to feed themselves, let alone their families, as they focus time and energy on survival. While many governments have programs to help these people living in poverty, there is more to do. The issue of poverty and food insecurity in Canada illustrates this.

In 2017, 12.5% of Canadian homes were food insecure. This equates to 4.4 million people, of whom 1.2 million were children. Since 2007, the number of people living with food insecurity in Canada rose by roughly 1 million. This negatively impacts health and plays a large role in the healthcare system. Since its founding in 1992, Quest Food Exchange has aimed to help those living in poverty become self-sufficient by offering them affordable food. However, the organization’s mandate goes even further than combating food insecurity. By saving surplus supplies, Quest Food Exchange is environmentally conscious. It stops quality goods from sitting a landfill, which creates a larger greenhouse gas effect.

What Is Quest Food Exchange?

Quest Food Exchange, a nonprofit organization providing grocery stores to those challenged by issues of food security, is based out of different locations in Vancouver, Canada. The organization is making its best effort to help the hungry in a dignified fashion. To do this, Quest Food Exchange gathers surplus food and goods from suppliers that would otherwise be thrown away and redistributes them to government programs, hospitals, schools and those living in harsh conditions. Shoppers must be referred and then apply to shop at Quest Food Exchange. This policy helps to ensure that only those who need additional help and support can use the nonprofit’s services. The organization holds a transitory model to help individuals become self-sufficient and allow them to choose their own food.

An Evolution in Food Redistribution

Global food waste is detrimental from both an environmental and a financial standpoint. Experts at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization suggest that humans waste 1.3 billion tons of food globally each year. This constitutes a waste of time, money, energy and labor. At the time of its founding, Quest Food Exchange acted similarly to a food bank. However, in 1997, workers came to the conclusion that unwanted food could support social programs to help feed the hungry. This is how the modern day Quest Food Exchange operation functions.

The organization now has three mandates: “Reduce hunger with dignity, build community and foster sustainability.” It does these things by providing affordable food, which in turn allows individuals to focus their attention on mental health, job security and other burdens. If more grocery stores followed this mandate, greenhouse emissions would significantly decrease, the economy would strengthen and the percentage of those living in poverty would drop. Quest Food Exchange is a great model for how organizations can solve food insecurity through simple redistribution.

Hannah Kaufman
Photo: Flickr

Poverty Eradication in CanadaThough a proportionally wealthy country, Canada struggles with a large amount of poverty. In 2018, the Government of Canada released Opportunity for All: Canada’s First Poverty Reduction Strategy. The report introduces strategies and tactics that the country intends to employ until 2030 to reach its goals. Concrete poverty reduction targets is one of the goals that includes a 20% reduction in poverty by 2020 and a 50% reduction in poverty by 2030. Canada’s Official Poverty Line is another goal set out to measure poverty and track progress towards the targets. It also plans on introducing a National Advisory Council on Poverty. All of these innovations would go towards poverty eradication in Canada.

The Council

The National Advisory Council on Poverty has helped the government move forward with their plan. The group has 10 members. Some of them actually confronted poverty in the nation themselves. In addition to those with lived experience, the council also holds members with expertise in community outreach, academia and prominent leadership. Annually, these members produce a report that helps the government understand the progress that has been made and what can still improve.

The Strategy

Beyond the council, the strategy also involved defining a poverty line for Canadians. Statistics Canada and Employment and Social Development Canada continuously review Canada’s Official Poverty Line. By using the Market Basket Measure, they are able to keep the measure accurate. Their various reports from 2018 to the present summarize government consultations on the matter. They also propose changes as to how to calculate the Market Basket Measure.

Canada’s Poverty Reduction Strategy also introduced 12 indicators of progress concerning its reduction. Some of the most notable include food insecurity, core housing needs and the share of youth engaged in employment, education or training at a given time. In order to ensure transparency on the progress the strategy is making, the government provides a website or “dashboard.” Citizens can use it to track all 12 of the Opportunity for All indicators as well as the poverty line itself. The site also lists future goals that Canadians can stay up-to-date on.

Government Programs

The Opportunity for All Strategy also connotes the bettering of government programs and investments that existed before 2015. Some of the most notable pre-existing involvement that the strategy emphasizes include Canada Child Benefit. This is a monthly, tax-free payment that assists low and middle-income families in raising children affordable. Another one is Canada Workers Benefit, a refundable tax credit with the purpose of supplementing the wages of low-income workers. Increase to the Guaranteed Income Supplement Top-Up Benefit is an initiative that helps improve the financial security of just under one million senior citizens. Additionally, Canada’s First National Housing Strategy is a plan spanning 10 years. Its goal is to provide more Canadians with suitable housing.

Charity and Aid

In addition to government efforts, many others are working on innovations in poverty eradication in Canada. One of the most successful charities working toward these goals is Pathways to Education, which provides financial support, social stimulation and academic rigor to youth in need. It has improved graduation rates by 85% in communities where its program has been offered. Canada Without Poverty is another charity that educates Canadians about the humanitarian and financial implications of living in poverty. It also identifies solutions regarding public policy and communication. Canadian citizens that broke out of poverty themselves run the organization, so they are well equipped to educate the public and connect with those in need. Furthermore, True North Aid is a charity that looks to close the poverty gap faced by Northern Indigenous communities in Canada. It does this by launching projects with initiatives in improving water supply, education, housing and the like.

 

Overall, innovations in poverty eradication in Canada are highly successful. With government planning along with cooperation from and communication with the Canadian public, a decline in the poverty rate has already taken place and seems as if it will continue in the coming years.

Ava Roberts
Photo: Flickr

B Corporation

B Corporations are businesses that give back to the community by following a set of guidelines for transparency, accountability and that pledge a certain amount of profits for a greater purpose.

Five B Corporations You Should Know

  1. Salt Spring Coffee, Canada
    B Impact Score: 118.4/200
    Salt Spring Coffee is a fair-trade organic coffee company that works with the Nicaraguan farmers to sustainably farm, sell and serve the highest grade of coffee beans on the market. Salt Spring hopes to pave the way for the coffee industry in producing eco-friendly packaging and contributing meaningful donations. The company does this by donating to innovative, eco-conscious projects through their 1% for the Planet fund.  These donations have allowed the company to co-found a Canadian waste-reduction initiative, help install solar panels for isolated Nicaraguan farmers and assist a women-run Ugandan farming co-op.
  2. Hora Salud, Chilé
    B Impact Score: 117.8/200
    Hora Salud is a simple user-friendly app for the rural Chilean populace that allows individuals to schedule and cancel appointments and check-ups online without wasting time. The app uses SMS to schedule and cancel doctors appointments. This allows already-sick individuals to avoid the burden of traveling to a Health Center and waiting in line for hours to book an appointment. Hora Salud may also be used in tandem with other markets to spread relevant information including weather, national emergencies and public policies. Their mission is to “Improve the quality of people’s lives, optimize service delivery and decision making with reliable and quality data.” As one of many B Corporations, Hora Salud promotes healthy business practices and opportunities for rural Chilean people.
  3. BioCarbon Partners, Zambia
    B Impact Score: 177.3/200
    BioCarbon Partners (BCP) operates in and outside of Zambia to offset carbon emissions in the atmosphere by sponsoring payment for eco-friendly business operations. BCP is an African leader in the reforestation carbon offset program. With a mission to “Make conservation of wildlife habitat valuable to people,” BCP is cultivating an ecosystem that protects one of Africa’s largest migration sanctuaries. The company prioritizes community engagement and partnership to incentivize forest protection through long-term habitat protection agreements. BCP calculates the amount of carbon that is not released into the atmosphere due to its project and generates sales of these forest carbon offsets through independent external auditors. BCP then reinvests this revenue into conservation and development projects in local communities that rely on wildlife habitat for income. BCP has created 87 jobs for Zambians and continues to create opportunities for wildlife and humanity alike.
  4. Avante, Brazil
    B Impact Score: 136.1/200
    Avante is the largest benefactor of small businesses in Brazil with more than $200 million invested to serve “micro-companies” that are typically pushed out of the financial industry. Avante functions as a non-conventional financial technology service that uniquely combines credit, insurance and payments. It is currently the largest MFI in Brazil. Avante’s mission is to “humanize financial services,” through a combination of empowerment, ethical business practices and acknowledgment that small businesses are the foundation of a strong economy.
  5. Alma Natura, Spain
    B Impact Score: 153.8/200
    Alma Natura established B Corporation status in 2013 to give back to the Sierra de Huelva community of Spain. The first institution of the business began as a nonprofit. It eventually evolved into a limited partnership as Alma Natura continued to invest in rural businesses, guiding them towards a more sustainable and ethical future. With their increased profits, Alma Natura gave back by funding education, technological development and sanitation, ensuring financial equality and sustainable practices in towns with less government funding. Not only has Alma Natura functioned as a business consultant to guide rural communities towards a more equitable economic future, but their commitment to preserving the planet and providing care and education to disadvantaged agricultural centers places their ranking high among businesses that take responsibility for the betterment of humanity.

Natalie Williams
Photo: Pixabay

Inuit Poverty
The Inuit are a group of Aboriginal peoples who have occupied the Arctic lowlands for the past 5,000 years. They have a robust history and culture but suffer from one of the highest levels of poverty in the world. In Northern Canada, Inuit live in four regions that comprise the Inuit Nunangat: Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, northern Quebec and northern Labrador. The Inuit Nunangat, where most of the 65,000 Canadian Inuit live, is a territory that includes the land, water and ice all integral elements of Inuit culture. This region spans 53 communities and ultimately makes up 35% of Canada’s landmass. Given the significant presence of Inuit throughout the country, some are giving much attention to the poverty that this group has faced. Here are five contributions to Inuit poverty in Northern Canada.

5 Contributions to Inuit Poverty

  1. Colonization. Inuit poverty in Northern Canada stems from European colonization. In the 1700s, European whalers and fur traders entered the Arctic region to hunt and barter with the Inuit. While trade brought new technologies into Inuit communities, this era left the land depleted of seals, whales and fish. Later, missionaries and the Canadian government entered Inuit society as well. Following that, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami wrote that: “many but certainly not all of the traditions, values, skills and knowledge that bound us together as Inuit gave way in response to the demands placed on us from the outside.” This culminated in pressure for Inuit societies to adopt Western culture and begin engaging in the world economy.
  2. Economy. The “Inuit Great Depression” occurred due to contentions over the commercial seal trade, a primary source of income for many Inuit communities. The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) successfully mobilized public opinion against Inuit seal hunting and in 1983 the European Economic Community placed a ban on the importation of fur and seal skins. Despite the written exemption for indigenous Inuit hunters, markets across the Arctic crashed and the Inuit economy suffered immensely. During this ban, the average income of an Inuit hunter fell from $54,000 CAD to $1,000 CAD. An estimated 18 out of 20 Inuit villages lost at least 60% of their income. Today, Inuit regions have some of the highest unemployment rates in Canada along with the highest suicide rates globally. The second ban by the E.U. in 2010 further exacerbated Inuit poverty. The need to work also takes time away from hunting, as well as limits Inuit access to traditional natural resources like food.
  3. Food. Due to geographic location, Inuit sustenance relies on hunting. The Inuit have less access to goods readily available throughout the rest of Canada since grocery stores struggle to supply food to remote Arctic regions. Depending on the season, planes cannot deliver fresh produce. Environmental changes diminish access and availability of traditional food, and store-bought alternatives are extremely expensive. A healthy diet for a four-person Inuit family costs an estimated $18,200-$23,400 per year, while the median yearly income is less than $17,000. The increased reliance on processed food leads to poor nutrition and health problems.
  4. Health. Health is another major challenge to Inuit people. According to UNICEF, “[Inuit] experience higher infant mortality rates, lower child immunization rates, poorer nutritional status and endemic rates of obesity, diabetes and other chronic diseases.” More than this, they “suffer higher rates of suicide, depression, substance abuse and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and their representation in the welfare and justice systems is generally higher than in the non-Aboriginal population.” Housing exacerbates these health conditions.
  5. Shelter. Inuit communities suffer some of the worst living conditions in Canada. The close living quarters allow communicable diseases like viruses and pneumonia to spread quickly, making Inuit children less likely than non-Aboriginal children to receive medical treatment. In fact, 31% of Inuit live in crowded homes due to housing shortages throughout their communities. UNICEF reports that approximately 28% of Inuit live in homes needing major repairs. Deteriorating housing poses a great risk to Inuit health and safety.

To combat some of the economic burdens that the Inuit bear and to mend relations with indigenous peoples, the Government of Canada initiated an act in 2019 to provide Inuit with economic opportunity and lifelong prosperity. The Indigenous Skills and Employment Training (ISET) Program, in partnership with the Kakivak Association, offers community needs-based skills training and development programs. While Canada needs to do much work to right the wrongs toward Indigenous peoples, it is making progress to help end Inuit poverty in Northern Canada.

– Rochelle Gluzman
Photo: Flickr

Healthcare in Canada
Canada is a picturesque country famous for its maple syrup and hockey. This United States neighbor is also the second-largest country in the world, home to over 37.5 million people and 80,000 different animal species. Although tourists visiting Canada do not typically think about issues such as healthcare when visiting the country, this topic is highly controversial and important for most Canadian citizens. Here are five facts about healthcare in Canada.

5 Facts About Healthcare in Canada

  1. Canada’s universal healthcare does not cover prescription drugs. When people think about universal healthcare, they may mistakenly imagine free or very low-cost healthcare for every aspect of medicine. In reality, despite the country’s support of a universal healthcare system, only about 70% of health costs receive public funding. Canadians must cover the remaining expenses either directly or through private insurance.
  2. Chronic respiratory diseases are a significant part of many Canadian lives. As of 2012, over 1.9 million Canadians aged 35 and older —9.6% of the country’s total population — suffer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). COPD is a condition that obstructs the airways, causing shortness of breath and inducing heavy coughing. Combined with the projected growth in the number of afflicted individuals over time, this figure indicates that many Canadians will endure COPD at some point during their lives. Doctors in Canada treat this disease with a variety of medications, including antibiotics and opioids.
  3. The majority of doctors are self-employed and not government employees. Doctors bill the government for their services since all Canadians have an entitlement to free care from a physician. However, Canadian doctors work for themselves, coordinating their hours and offices. Doctors in Canada are also personally responsible for paying for their employees and for the spaces in which they practice.
  4. Canada recognizes mental illness as a serious issue. Mental illness impacts approximately one in every five Canadians, or 6.7 million people, every year. In fact, 500,000 Canadians each week are unable to work as a result of mental illness. Given the volume of citizens struggling with mental health, Canada has developed a necessary appreciation for this issue by legally recognizing mental illness as a medical condition and requiring insurance to cover psychiatric care. This coverage is accessible to nearly all Canadian citizens, regardless of medical history or income level. Although Canada’s strong acknowledgment of mental health and coverage of mental illness often receive underappreciation, this country truly prioritizes mental well-being.
  5. Cancer is Canada’s main medical concern. A study by cancer.ca shows that cancer is the number one cause of death in Canada. The study further reveals that one in two Canadians will develop cancer in their lifetime, and one in four Canadians will ultimately die from the illness. These statistics have concerning implications for the country’s citizens, as well as their friends, families and employers. Predictions determine that lung, breast and prostate cancers are will afflict the highest population of Canadians in 2020, with lung cancer yielding the highest death rate at 25.5%. Given the substantial risk throughout the country and the preventable nature of this disease, many Canadians argue that greater actions must occur to prevent citizens from dying of cancer.

While the natural beauty of Canada might mask the true complexity of the country’s healthcare structure for many tourists, citizens see value in understanding and improving this system. Although citizens receive coverage for a majority of medical expenses, governments are ultimately responsible for continuing to foster efficient, affordable and extensive health programs to guarantee the well-being of all Canadians.

– Kate Estevez
Photo: Flickr

facts about parliamentary democracy
There are many structures by which countries can run a government, ranging from democracy to totalitarianism. Parliamentary democracy is a specific form of democracy that originated with the parliament and has been evolving ever since. In order to better understand this form of government that is different than the one the United States possesses, here are seven facts about parliamentary democracy.

7 Facts About Parliamentary Democracy

  1. The structure differs from a presidential democracy. In a presidential democracy (such as the one the United States operates under), the chief executive (president) and legislature (congress) undergo separate elections. Conversely, in a parliamentary democracy, the elected legislature (parliament) chooses the chief executive (prime minister). The parliament can remove the prime minister at any time by a “vote of no confidence,” which is a less laborious task than removing a president.
  2. People refer to the British Parliament as the “Mother of Parliament.” This is because Britain developed the Westminster System of parliamentary democracy: a specific system founded on centuries of traditions. Other colonial states adopted the system, such as Australia, and many of them still operate under some variation of the Westminster System today.
  3. Fifty-one countries currently operate under a parliamentary system. Among these countries are Canada, India, Japan and Spain. Most of these countries function in combination with other systems, such as a constitutional monarchy, in which a monarch may share political power with the parliament.
  4. Prime ministers’ powers vary. There are variations in a lot of the parliamentary systems around the world. A prime minister’s power can change depending on the country and allocated duties in the constitutions. The strong prime minister model exists in the United Kingdom and most other countries that were once part of the British Empire. Some of the prime minister’s powers in these countries include the power to change the structure of ministries and the ability to call for elections at any time. Countries in which several political parties must work together to maintain a legislative majority, such as Australia, Italy and Belgium, usually possess weak prime ministers.
  5. There are a few semi-presidential systems. These are systems in which a president and prime minister rule together. The powers between the two seats can vary, with one having more power than the other or both having equal influence. Most countries that operate under this system do so to put checks in place to avoid presidential dictatorships. Examples of countries with this system include Ireland, Portugal and Russia.
  6. There is often less gridlock. Along with the facts about parliamentary democracy, there are some pros and cons. Because the parliament elects the prime minister, people often observe that these two branches function better together than in a presidential democracy in which the public elects the president. Oftentimes legislation passes with less resistance, whereas the United States has faced government shutdowns when legislation was at a standstill.
  7. There can be a quick overturning of leaders and inconsistency. While legislation can pass more efficiently, a negative consequence of the parliamentary structure is the rapidity with which things can change. Because the parliament can remove the prime minister anytime he or she falls out of favor, this can lead to a lot of restructuring and inconsistent leadership. This happened during the Brexit process, in which three separate prime ministers received the appointment to deal with the aftermath of the vote.
Many believe it is important to know about the different forms of government structures so that one can examine their own country and evaluate its relative effectiveness. Hopefully, these basic facts about parliamentary democracy have provided a foundation to understand the structure and some of the pros and cons of the system.

 – Lindsey Shinkle
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