Cambodia Job FoundationBetween 1975 and 1979, Cambodia was ruled by communist leader Pol Pot and his Khmer Rouge regime. Under his administration, millions of Cambodians were forced to labor without adequate food. In order to improve the lives of Cambodians who are recovering from the regime’s rule and help impoverished people become self-reliant, The Cambodia Job Foundation (CJF) is using steady employment to empower people. 

Cambodia’s History of Struggle

During Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge regime’s rule, those who were educated–or those who appeared so–were seen as a threat. People were profiled by something as simple as wearing glasses and many were killed. The majority of teachers at the time were murdered; thus, the education system was largely destroyed. 

Cambodia is still in the process of recovery from the Khmer Rouge. 37.2% of the country still lives in poverty, according to the2019 Global Multidimensional Poverty Index issued by the United Nations. Many Cambodians are also illiterate. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) reported that the 2015 literacy rate in Cambodia for the population over age 65, most of whom lived through the Khmer Rouge, was only 53%.

Many NGOs have been working to alleviate poverty in Cambodia, and one in particular labors to help educate and create jobs for Cambodians. 

The Cambodia Job Foundation

The Cambodia Job Foundation aims to help impoverished young Cambodians become more self-reliant. According to its mission, the organization “empowers individuals to improve their lives and support their families through quality and stable employment.”

With teams in both Cambodia and the United States, the foundation mentors Cambodians, specifically those aged 30 and younger, with a focus on business startup and operation as well as financial management. It also provides access to information and resources, to which those learning the programs can apply what they are taught. In 2018, the foundation helped 131 families complete financial training lessons, mentored 66 individuals in starting a business and led 80 individuals to graduate from an IT class.

A Former Intern’s Experience

A native of Kampong Cham, Cambodia, Theary Leng was an intern for CJF during the summer of 2019. Leng has helped the organization with various training and mentoring programs as well as grant approvals. She’s seen the foundation’s impacts in her country. 

“They have helped some of the low-income families to get on their [feet] by giving them a $500 grant to start up a small business,” she said.

Leng said she believes a variety of obstacles prevent Cambodians from obtaining work, including a lack of vocational training skills and education, gender inequality in the workplace and government corruption. But through the Cambodia Job Foundation, she is able to help those in her country.

“As someone who grew up in Cambodia and as a direct witness who has been impacted by poverty, I understand and know how hard it would be to live in poverty,” Leng said. “That’s why I want to help Cambodians to become self-reliant.”

The Cambodian people are still recovering from the Khmer Rouge regime. Many people still live in poverty and lack literacy skills. CJF is working to lift up Cambodians by empowering them through resources that can help them gain and retain stable employment. 

Emma Benson
Photo: Unsplash

McCartney's Humanitarian Work
Sir James Paul McCartney, known professionally as Paul McCartney, is a singer, songwriter, poet, bass player and animal rights activist. He is best known for his work with the English rock band The Beatles. During his 63-year-long ongoing career that revolutionized the world of music, McCartney has amassed a fortune of over $1 billion. This drove him to begin making significant charitable donations to organizations. McCartney’s humanitarian work emphasizes spreading awareness about causes for which he advocates.

5 Facts About Paul McCartney’s Humanitarian Work

  1. As of June 2020, Paul McCartney has supported 45 charities. Throughout his life, he has donated millions to several charities and has participated in many benefit concerts, such as Live 8 and Change Begins Within. Change Begins Within was a 2009 benefit concert in Manhattan, New York, hosted by the David Lynch Foundation. It helped raise money and awareness for at-risk youth and encouraged the use of meditation to combat stress and achieve success. Other significant charities and organizations that McCartney has supported include Adopt-A-Minefield, Cruelty Free International, Everyone Matters, Greenpeace, PETA, Red Cross and the St. Francis Food Pantries and Shelters. McCartney is a patron for Adopt-A-Minefield, an organization dedicated to raising awareness about the problems of landmines, raising funds to help survivors of landmine accidents and helping clear landmines. From 2001 to 2005, McCartney performed in five benefit galas for the organization. In total, he helped raise $17 million for the now-inoperative charity.
  2. Paul McCartney is a huge advocate for providing aid for childhood diseases. McCartney has four biological children, Mary, Stella, James and Beatrice, and an adopted daughter, Heather, who is the biological daughter of the late Linda McCartney. McCartney also has eight grandchildren and used them as inspiration for his children’s book “Hey, Grandude!”, which was published in September 2019. His devotion to his own children and grandchildren is evident, but it is also apparent that he cares a great deal for the welfare of children around the world. McCartney’s humanitarian work has included donations to the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, Keep a Child Alive, Children with Leukemia and Teenage Cancer Trust. These are organizations dedicated to focusing on the needs of children affected by significant diseases or disorders. Additionally, in 2012, McCartney performed at the Royal Albert Hall in London for the Teenage Cancer Trust, helping raise over $382 million.
  3. Paul McCartney’s humanitarian work dates back over 40 years. In 1979, McCartney was one of the lead organizers of the Concerts for the People of Kampuchea, a series of concerts that ran from December 26-29, 1979 and took place at the Hammersmith Odeon in London. The concerts raised awareness and donations for the victims of war-torn Cambodia (then known as Kampuchea) at the start of the Cambodian-Vietnamese War. The proceeds went directly toward United Nations agencies’ emergency relief work in Cambodia. In addition, in 1989, McCartney participated in a charity version of the song “Ferry Cross the Mersey.” The proceeds made from the single were used to aid victims of the Hillsborough disaster, a human crush that occurred at a soccer match in the Hillsborough Stadium in South Yorkshire, England, killing nearly 100 people. The song held the number one spot on the U.K. chart for three weeks after its release.
  4. Paul McCartney supports the eradication of poverty. McCartney’s humanitarian work also includes dedicating time and money toward helping those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. His most notable involvement with an organization dedicated to ending poverty was when he performed at a Live 8 concert in 2005. Live 8 was a series of benefit concerts organized in support of the U.K.’s Make Poverty History coalition and the international Global Call to Action Against Poverty campaign. The goal of the concerts was to raise $50 billion in aid toward impoverished African countries by 2010 (the concerts raised about $30 billion). McCartney has also supported the Worldwide Orphans Foundation, Aid Still Required and the Prince’s Trust. These organizations assist people in underdeveloped countries and unfavorable socioeconomic situations.
  5. In April 2020, Paul McCartney performed in the One World: Together at Home benefit concert. The current international COVID-19 outbreak has affected people worldwide. Global Citizen, a worldwide movement dedicated to ending poverty by 2030, hosted a charity special in the form of a virtual benefit concert starring many famed musicians. The concert was titled One World: Together at Home. It raised $127 million for the COVID-19 Solidarity Response Fund and for charities providing food, shelter and healthcare to those in need. McCartney sang a solo rendition of the Beatles’ song “Lady Madonna” while playing the piano.

Paul McCartney’s humanitarian work proves his unwavering dedication toward improving the welfare of humans and animals alike. His aid has made him one of the celebrities best known for generous donations. His championship for nearly 50 charities and organizations proves how one can use their wealth to better the state of the world.

Kia Wallace
Photo: Flickr

The Lake Clinic
The Lake Clinic Cambodia, a free healthcare service that started in 2007, has helped nine different villages and more than 13,000 people in the isolated Tonlé Sap region of Cambodia. The Tonlé Sap area, in Southeast Asia, stretches 160 miles and holds more than 1 million people- all living in floating villages. These villages contain some of the poorest people in Cambodia. These communities face disease, poverty, and drastic change in weather temperaments. A majority of the people rely on fishing with a daily income of $2.50 a day. The Lake Clinic works hard to combat the poverty and health struggles amongst these communities.

Why is this Clinic Valuable?

According to The Lake Clinic, “a lack of education combined with limited access to hygiene and sanitation contribute to a huge burden of preventable diseases.” More often than not, there are no teachers or health care facilities. Due to drastic weather changes that make it expensive and dangerous to travel to receive health care, many go without. Thus, the Lake Clinic stepped in. However, traveling throughout the villages is difficult and expensive due to high fuel costs and a lack of adequate resources. The Lake Clinic uses old boats and technology, including inefficient solar panels, to do their work.

Funding Found and Established

The Honnold Foundation, run by Alex Honnold (rock climber, environmentalist and advocate), offered to help The Lake Clinic in Cambodia. The generous support of The Honnold Foundation helps to fund new solar panels of The Lake Clinic’s boat fleets they use to travel within the communities. Now “with an upgraded solar and battery system,” they also have the availability of better technology, such as ultrasound and electron diagrams. The Lake Clinic can efficiently provide better healthcare services to even more communities around the Tonlé Sap Lake area.

How The Lake Clinic is Using its Resources

Thanks to the solar panels and battery, the Lake Clinic has been able to expand the work it does, offering support and educational lectures about dental care, pregnancy, water sanitation, floating gardens, mental health, pediatrics and teenage care. Annually, they offer over 1,800 vaccines, almost 500 eye checks, over 600 dental treatments and almost 517 antenatal treatments. The Clinic has also been able to expand their operation, offering five clinics and six boats to the Tonlé Sap Lake.

Healthcare and poverty are inextricably related. Poverty increases the likelihood of disease, as resources for hygiene and sanitation are not accessible. Poor health can be a fatal result of poverty. Those living in poverty and impoverished communities are far more likely to struggle with hygiene, disease and malnutrition. They are actively fighting to work with solar panels to bring healthcare to the Tonlé Sap communities. These clinics on boats are offering solutions and help to those living within the Tonlé Sap region. Solar panels are not just an energy source, but a tool saving lives.

Hannah Kaufman
Photo: CND Pixabay

In the past decade, Cambodia has made progress in reducing the inequality gap between men and women. In partnership with the UN and USAID, gender barriers and negative social norms surrounding women’s place in society are being broken.

Women have taken the lead in various areas of poverty reduction, such as participating in the democratic process and spearheading efforts against water insecurity and climate disaster.

Here are some ways in which gender equality in Cambodia is improving.

Changing Societal Norms

During the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s, violence against women escalated, including rape. The UN has worked to support victims and correct assumptions and inattention surrounding violence against women in Cambodia. Through the UN Joint Global Programme on Essential Services for Women and Girls Subject to Violence that began in 2017, survivors of rape and violence are receiving help and support. They focus on various needs of victims.

Through such programs, the UN has made efforts toward openly discussing and reducing violence against women, promoting gender equality in Cambodia.

A UN survey found that 82% of men and 92% of women accept that a woman’s main role lies only in overseeing the home. By using media, the UN is educating the public about negative social norms surrounding the role of women. For example, UNDP Cambodia and the Ministry of Women’s Affairs of Cambodia (MoWA) developed an initiative that focuses on improving gender equality in Cambodia. Between 2017 and 2020, this initiative focused on three areas:

  • Refining various institutions in the health, legal, and economic sectors to implement policies that empower women.
  • Using media to educate and engage the public to break societal norms and gender barriers.
  • Advance efforts to place women in positions of leadership and decision-making.

Women Lead Efforts Toward Water Security

Not only is the conversation surrounding gender equality in Cambodia changing, but women have stepped into positions of leadership in poverty reduction. For example, women are instrumental in efforts to achieve water security. In Cambodia, women are the main members of the household to fetch and handle water.

In addition to daily water needs, women also depend on water for its use in farming. Almost two-thirds of Cambodians are farmers, many of whom are women. The USAID Sustainable Water Partnership (SWP) recognizes the leadership skills of women and trains them to aid efforts toward water security. For example, in 2018, this program trained 17 women in the Stung Chinit Watershed and placed them in positions of leadership. These women gained knowledge in various areas, including conflict resolutionteamwork, communication and overseeing finances. In future years, the SWP plans to continue to include women in the fight for water security.

Women in the Democratic Process

The USAID has also worked toward including women in the democratic process. Through grassroots organizations, women are now becoming part of various civil rights causes. The USAID has promoted the participation of women in lobbying for workers’ rights and human rights.

Cambodia’s National Assembly is still composed of 80% men, but efforts to place women in political leadership positions are being undertaken. For example, a Cambodian NGO SILAKA is focused on partnering with political parties to engage women in politics. In 2017, the Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) and the Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP) focused on including qualified women candidates on candidate lists during council elections.

Women and Climate Disaster

In 2019, UNDP Cambodia increased efforts to prevent climate disasters and protect communities from these disasters. The UNDP has emphasized the role of women in disaster management. They are equipping local women with leadership and decision-making skills as a part of the Charter of Demands for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation.

Looking Forward

With the aid of the UN and USAID, Cambodia has made crucial efforts toward reforming negative societal norms. This has come through media campaigns and through involving women in poverty reduction efforts. To achieve greater gender equality in Cambodia, further efforts are needed to empower women politically, economically and socially.

– Anita Durairaj
Photo: Needpix

Tuberculosis In Cambodia To the nearly 17 million people living in Cambodia, tuberculosis is no stranger. In 2007, it was the seventh leading cause of death in the country. In 2012, it caused nearly 8.6 million Cambodians to fall ill. Today, despite the ongoing threat of tuberculosis in Cambodia, eradication efforts continue to prove that solutions to complex health problems can oftentimes start with the simplest of interventions—take, perhaps, a new washing machine.

A Clean, New Discovery

For the staff at the Khmer Soviet Friendship Hospital in Cambodia’s capital, such a realization came around because of Nhib Chhom. Nhib Chhom, the Deputy Infection Control Coordinator, asked nurse educator Kareeen Dunlop to test the bacterial residue of hospital linens. She discovered an extremely minor reduction in the amount of bacteria on washed laundry. This was a surprising finding no doubt, but to the hospital’s many employees, less than so.

“Staff have been pleading with me in regards to their laundering,” describes Dunlop in a 2019 report. “Nhib Chhom again said how the washing was coming back from the laundry dirtier than it went.”

Seeing as the hospital specializes in the treatment of infectious diseases, the nurses’ frustration is particularly understandable. Without the proper means to sanitize linens, curbing disease transmission is made unnecessarily more difficult. Furthermore, the lack of sanitization unnecessarily ignites yet another outbreak of tuberculosis in Cambodia.

What to Know About Tuberculosis in Cambodia

Globally, the WHO approximates that 1.8 billion people have TB. Cambodia in particular is still home to one of the largest TB infection rates in the world. Cambodia has approximately 13,000 TB-related deaths per year. Cases of tuberculosis in Cambodia have decreased by 45% between 2002 and 2011. Despite this decrease, however, Cambodia continues to remain among the world’s 22 high-burden tuberculosis countries. The Pasteur Institute in Cambodia estimates a TB prevalence of 36,000 cases out of a population of 16 million in 2015 alone. Coupled with an estimated 40% TB under-diagnosis rate according to research at the National University in Singapore, the TB threat in Cambodia is certainly far from passed.

Thankfully, however, such staggering numbers have not gone unchecked. In fact, together the national TB program and international partners have achieved an 85% TB treatment success rate. They continue to address eradication efforts. In the case of the Khmer Soviet Friendship Hospital’s laundry problem, the officials involved were Michael and Jodie Flowers. Michael and Jodie Flowers, managers of Commercial Laundry Solutions LTD., who volunteered to install four washing machines and donate a drier to the hospital. Aided by $6,000 worth of spare parts from Electrolux, the Flowers spent three weeks refurbishing their washing appliances. They ultimately granted nurses the ability to deliver sparkling clean laundry for the first time.

How the Cambodian Health Committee is Combatting Tuberculosis in Cambodia

Many others works to empower healthcare providers with the materials necessary to deter global health threats. A nonprofit NGO, the Cambodian Health Committee (CHC), has also been working long hours to eradicate tuberculosis in Cambodia. Additionally, they also strive to eradicate HIV/AIDS from Svay Rieng, Kompot and Kandal, three of Cambodia’s poorest and most war-affected provinces.

Founded by research immunologist Dr. Anne Goldfeld, in collaboration with healthcare professional Dr. Sok Thim, the CHC has treated more than 32,000 people with tuberculosis in Cambodia since its founding in 1994. The CHC has also screened over 2,000 people for drug-resistant TB infection. With an integrated emphasis on healthcare, clinical research and education, the CHC implements a community-based healthcare model to provide direct TB care, in addition to investigating the effectiveness of new innovations.

For example, the CHC designed a research study regarding the effects of treatment timing in outcomes for TB and HIV-infected patients. The study, CAMELIA, found that beginning TB drug therapy two weeks prior to administering AIDS medications decreases mortality by 34%.

The Borgen Project recently spoke with Dr. Sarin Chan, a clinical investigator for CAMELIA. According to Dr. Chan, the study has since progressed out of the experimental phase and into the clinical one. The study is involved with early ARV treatment for co TB and HIV-infected patients now recognized in the national guidelines for clinical care of HIV patients. The National Center for Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control’s development of a TB prevention strategy is similarly a promising step forward in the fight against tuberculosis in Cambodia, says Chan.

Looking Ahead

At the end of the washing cycle, much good can be said about the progress against tuberculosis in Cambodia. Despite the country’s high TB infection rate, increased access to community-based healthcare as provided by the CHC and improvement of hospital sanitation practices all point towards a brighter future.

– Petra Dujmic 
Photo: Flickr

Homelessness in CambodiaCambodia is a developing country in Southeast Asia. With a population of more than 16 million, more than one-fourth of the country lives in poverty. Many live just above the poverty line of $1.25 per day and at least 10 million Cambodians are in need of decent housing. Here are four facts about housing and homelessness in Cambodia.

4 Facts About Housing and Homelessness in Cambodia

  1. As aforementioned, 10 million Cambodians lack adequate housing. Additionally, about two million houses need necessary improvement to meet the minimum quality standards.
  2. Cambodia has a large urban population. Around 21.2% of Cambodians live in cities. In the country’s capital, Phnom Penh, one in five people live in the slums and lack access to basic services, according to Habitat for Humanity.
  3. About 80% of Cambodia’s population lives in rural housing. Traditional Khmer rural homes are wooden and built on large stilts raised above the ground. This way, the water from the monsoons that frequent the country does not reach and damage the main part of the houses.
  4. A survey by the Cambodian National Institute of Statistics, Columbia University in New York and Friends International cited in a 2017 VOA News story found that in Cambodia’s seven biggest urban centers about 2,700 young people were homeless with the numbers climbing as a result of “higher unemployment and migration to the cities from rural [areas].”

Habitat for Humanity

Since 2003, Habitat for Humanity has been working in Cambodia to “break the cycle of poverty through safe, durable, affordable housing solutions.” To date, Habitat Cambodia has helped provide more than 22,000 families with shelter. The organization works with both international and local NGOs, local and national authorities and other groups to tackle the homelessness situation in Cambodia.

The organization’s innovative approach includes market development, advocacy for secure land tenure and collaborating with other NGOs and community-based organizations in order to create housing solutions for the poor in Cambodia. Habitat for Humanity has also been working in three of Cambodia’s biggest cities — Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Battambang — to provide housing solutions and help secure land for the homeless and other in-need groups including those living with disabilities, orphans and those affected by HIV/AIDS. In 2018, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reported that these efforts reached 73,000 children and adults.

In 2014, Cambodia adopted a National Housing Policy to improve access to housing. However, according to Habitat for Humanity, this policy has not yet reached low-income and middle-income families. To combat this, Habitat Cambodia is advocating for “effective implementation of the National Housing Policy” in order to provide access to housing for the growing number of Cambodians in urban areas.

 Though housing shortages and homelessness in Cambodia are still serious and ongoing issues, organizations like Habitat for Humanity are helping combat the issue — one habitat at a time.

– Emma Benson
Photo: Flickr

Facts About Hunger in Cambodia
Hunger is an issue that plagues much of Southeast Asia — 9.8% of the population experiences undernourishment, which equates to 27.8 million people. Cambodia, a developing country between Thailand and Vietnam, remains one of the poorest nations in Southeast Asia. Although Cambodia has made considerable strides in diminishing poverty rates and growing the economy over the years, food insecurity is still an ongoing and serious issue. Here are five facts about hunger in Cambodia and what some, like the World Food Programme (WFP) and Action Against Hunger in Cambodia, are doing to eradicate it.

5 Facts About Hunger in Cambodia

  1. Political Instability: Political instability has been a major contributing factor to chronic hunger in Cambodia. The country has suffered many years of war, particularly the Khmer Rouge from 1975-1979, which depleted natural resources.
  2. Undernourishment: Around 15% of the country’s 16 million people suffer from undernourishment, according to the World Food Programme. This percentage amounts to more than 2 million people throughout the country. 
  3. Agriculture and Natural Disasters: Around 79% of the Cambodian population lives in rural areas, and 65% rely on agriculture, fisheries and forestry to survive. Natural disasters, like floods and droughts, often threaten the country and therefore are extremely damaging to the food system.
  4. Rice and Seasonal Shortages: Of the country’s 1.6 million households, two-thirds face seasonal shortages each year. Many Cambodians are rice farmers. In fact, rice alone accounts for as much as 30% of household spending
  5. Chronic Malnutrition and Stunting: About 40% of Cambodian children suffer from chronic malnutrition, which stunts the growth and cognitive development of 32% of Cambodian children under 5-years-old. This high statistic is mainly due to nutrient deficiency. According to World Vision, this stunting contributes to “increased child mortality as children are more vulnerable to infection and disease.” Additionally, 10% suffers from wasting, low weight to height ratio.

The World Food Programme

Since 1979, the year the Khmer Rouge ended, the World Food Programme has helped vulnerable Cambodians “meet their emergency needs and have access to nutritious, safe and diverse foods.” WFP also works toward enhancing long-term food and nutrition security for Cambodian families.

In order to meet its goal of terminating hunger in Cambodia by 2030, the WFP is working with the Royal Government of Cambodia to create programs that promote access to nutritious diets within the country and to strengthen systems to be nationally-owned. One example of this is the WFP-supported home-grown school feeding program. The WFP is working to transition the program to a “nationally-owned home-grown school meals model” that “sources ingredients from local farmers, incorporates food quality and safety, encourages community ownership, and supports local economies.” 

Action Against Hunger

Similar to the World Food Programme, Action Against Hunger is also working to end hunger in Cambodia. The organization has been serving the nation since 2013. In 2018, Action Against Hunger reached 11,291 children with lifesaving nutrition and health programs, provided 2,378 people with Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) interventions and supplied 27,568 people with food security and livelihoods programs. 

These five facts about hunger Cambodia show that though hunger is still an issue that plagues the nation, organizations like the World Food Programme and Action Against Hunger are helping to reduce it. Hopefully, with continued effort, hunger will continue to subside in the country.

Emma Benson
Photo: Flickr

Hydropower Dams
A once thriving area for fishing and agriculture, the Mekong River Delta sports a dramatically different look than it did just a century ago. The river, historically wide and abundant, is characterized by large jigsaw puzzles of cracked earth where water has dried up and emptied villages where fishermen once thrived. The place has recently seen a mass exodus, with a million people resettling from southwestern Vietnam alone in the last decade.

Harmful Effects of Hydropower Dams

The region has long been one of the world’s largest inland fisheries, supporting 60 million Cambodians, Vietnamese, Thai and Laotians. It provides Vietnam with 50 percent of its food and 23 percent of its GDP, and Cambodia with 80 percent of its protein intake and 12 percent of its GDP. However, over the last couple of decades, hydropower dams have emerged along the river, threatening local communities and ecosystems while creating large amounts of renewable energy.

According to a UNESCO report, dams on the upper Mekong have resulted in a 70 percent reduction in sediment in the delta. By 2040, estimates determine that these and future dams will block 97 percent of the sediment that moves down the river. This sediment is critical for both rice production and fish life in the Mekong. The loss has been devastating.

Hydropower Dams are Detrimental to the Environment

Even with the detriment to rice production and fishing in the area, the lower Mekong region may still see more hydropower dams. Several countries have created plans to use the area for power, and not without reason. Estimates have determined that dams in the region should be able to produce 30,000 megawatts of electricity, which would be a massive boost to the power capacity of the lower Mekong.

Dams are also an opportunity for foreign investment and could be a huge boost to the GDP of these countries. In fact, the Mekong River Commission’s initial studies estimated that countries in the region could gain $30 billion from dam development, though more recent studies suggest that the area could lose as much as $7 billion from this construction. Despite this, the Mekong River Commission has advised a postponement on the building of these dams until it can further evaluate the risks, and because of the inequitable effects of building the dams, which would likely benefit urban elites while hurting rural farmers and fishermen.

Are there Positive Effects?

Some argue that the presence of these dams may have positive effects on fishing and rice production in the area due to an increased flow of water during dry seasons as dams release water, combatting the effects of drought. Whether this makes up for the loss of nutrient-rich silt and fish life is debatable. However, farmers have recently resorted to using chemical fertilizers and pesticides, which can be potentially harmful in the long-run, to boost their crop production.

Though it is unclear whether or not countries in the Lower Mekong Region will continue their plans to build hydropower dams, it is certain that farmers and fishermen will continue to suffer as long as the delta is victim to the already present dams in China and the effects of climate change. However, on a lighter note, there has been a recent increase in international aid and development to the Lower Mekong Region, as well as an effort to maintain biodiversity and create sanctuaries for fish and new fish reserves. Hopefully, these countries will manage to balance the poverty-alleviating industrialization that comes with hydropower, and a shift to industrialized agriculture with the interests of rural farmers, fishermen and biodiversity in the region in mind.

– Ronin Berzins
Photo: Flickr

Housing Poverty in Cambodia
Cambodia is a country on the mainland of Southeast Asia. With influences from many different Asian cultures, as well as from France and the United States, some of the nation’s urban areas look similar to the western cities. However, the capital, Phnom Penh, is one of the few urban centers in this predominantly rural nation. Currently, there is a housing poverty epidemic and many people are lacking sufficient living conditions. Here are 10 facts about housing poverty in Cambodia.

10 Facts About Housing Poverty in Cambodia

  1. Poverty in Cambodia: Although poverty in Cambodia has decreased significantly, almost 75 percent of Cambodian people are living on less than $3 a day, which is just above the poverty line of $1.25 per day. This poverty affects both the urban and rural areas of the country, although it is more concentrated in rural areas.
  2. Urban Poverty: Many Cambodians flee impoverished rural areas of the country for urban centers, including the capital, Phnom Penh. Unfortunately, many of these migrants don’t find the wealth and better living conditions they seek. They are often unable to pay rent in the city and live beside railroad tracks in extreme poverty. These living quarters are often unsanitary and plagued with bacteria and parasites.
  3. Lack of Sanitation: Today, two million houses need critical improvement in Cambodia. Most of those living in poverty live in poor housing conditions in rural areas. According to Water Aid Cambodia, more than half of the population lives without toilets in Cambodia.
  4. Improving Sanitation: A housing survey conducted by the National Institute of Statistics reported that 51.3 percent of households in 2013 did not have toilet facilities. This represented an improvement, however. In 1998, 85.5 percent of households did not have toilet facilities, and in 2008, this had only decreased to 66.3 percent of households.
  5. Habitat for Humanity: Nonprofit Habitat for Humanity has helped over 22,000 families build strength, stability and self-reliance through shelter. They work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia’s capital, to provide housing solutions to 2.8 million people.
  6. Cambodian Children Fund: Founded in 2014, the Cambodian Children Fund (CCF) has managed to build over 360 homes for the many children and families in dire need of shelter. The CCF is now hoping to broaden its reach, building homes across Cambodia.
  7. Volunteer Building Cambodia: Volunteer Building Cambodia builds wooden Khmer style houses for the poor of Cambodia. These houses last over 15 years and each cost $3,000 to build. Volunteer Building Cambodia is based in Siem Reap, in the northwest region of the country. They operate in the most rural and impoverished areas in an effort to combat housing poverty in Cambodia.
  8. Taramana: Due to the harrowing conditions in urban areas, 37 percent of children under the age of five are malnourished. Taramana, a nonprofit organization, has chosen to focus its efforts on the children of Phnom Penh. They help provide the city’s children with proper education so they can rise above a life of poverty.
  9. World Housing: The Borgen Project recently reached out to World Housing, a nonprofit headquartered in Vancouver, British Columbia that provides housing to those in need in developing countries across the globe, including Cambodia. “Since 2013, we’ve worked with Cambodian Children’s Fund to build all our communities in Cambodia and between 2013 and 2017 we’ve built and gifted 483 homes, providing housing to 2,415 people throughout Cambodia,” said Jason Valagao, the organization’s Donor Relations Manager.
  10. Girls 2 Grannies: Valagao also stated that World Housing’s latest project is called Girls 2 Grannies. This project is building a brand new community designed with girls and women aged two all the way to 102 in mind. According to Valagao, these brand new villages will include, “a library, sports field, community gardens, a pagoda and two classrooms. Each home in this community will have its own shower and toilet. The community will provide housing to approximately 200 women through the gift of 50 homes.”

While housing poverty in Cambodia remains a significant concern, many organizations are fighting to better the lives of impoverished Cambodians. Whether efforts are made through providing efficient housing or educating the youth of Phnom Penh, there is always hope when people band together to reduce widespread poverty.

– William Mendez
Photo: Flickr

3D Printing in Impoverished Nations
3D printing is a technology that has existed since the 1980s. Over time, additive technology has increasingly progressed where various medical applications can use it. 3D printing in impoverished nations has several benefits specifically in medicine and medical services relating to the affordability for the general populous of these nations. 3D printing for medical applications is the process of utilizing a digital blueprint or digital model, slicing the model into manageable bits and then reconstructing it with various types of materials, typically plastic. Here are three examples of 3D printing in impoverished nations.

3 Examples of 3D Printing in Impoverished Nations

  1. Custom Surgical Elements: The use of 3D printing has significantly increased in the manufacturing of customized surgical elements, such as splints. Manufacturers can make these devices and components quickly at a relatively low cost, which would greatly reduce the price of sale to the consumer. The reason for the reduced cost of production compared to conventional manufacturing systems is primarily due to the additive nature of 3D printing. For example, 3D printing actually adds material onto each layer, rather than subtracting (cutting/slicing) and combining material. This results in smaller opportunities for error to occur and the wasting of fewer materials in the long run.
  2. 3D Printed Organs: Many know this particular field of 3D medical printing as bioprinting. According to The Smithsonian Magazine, bioprinting involves integrating human cells from the organ recipient into the “scaffolding” of the 3D printed organ. The scaffolding acts as the skeleton of the organ and the cells will grow and duplicate to support physiological function. Although this particular method is still in the experimental stages, there have been successful procedures performed in the past. Researchers at Wake Forest have found an effective method for bioprinting human organs; they have successfully implanted and grown skin, ears, bone, and muscle in lab animals. Further, scientists at Princeton University have 3D printed a bionic ear that can detect various frequencies, different than a biological, human ear. The researchers behind the creation of this bionic ear theorized that they could use a similar procedure for internal organs. Similar to surgical components, 3D printed organs would greatly reduce the cost of organ transplants. Additionally, it would increase the availability of organs, which are nearly impossible to find. Locating an appropriate match within a specific proximity of the patient has resulted in a global organ shortage. Whilst some have presented a solution in the form of international organ trade, WHO states that international organ trade could provide a significant health concern because of the lengthy trips the organs would experience. 3D printed organs may be a sustainable method to help impoverished nations with supply organs quickly and cheaply.
  3. Prosthetics: 3D printing in impoverished nations could also allow people to print custom prosthetics for those in need. The lack of access to current prosthetics creates a lot of obstacles for people living in impoverished nations. Creating prosthetics with 3D printing technology has the potential to provide a person the ability to accomplish basic, daily tasks in order to support a family. Not only are current prosthetics expensive, but they are also often inconvenient or they prohibit natural motion. For example, Cambodia treats a prosthetic hand as a cosmetic item, leading the majority of the population to refuse the prosthetic due to the lack of functionality. The Victoria Hand project is currently attempting to change this perspective by providing functional, 3D printed prosthetic hands to Cambodia and Nepal. The team has performed user trials, where the aim is to distribute the 3D printed hand to the general populace. Subsequently, the design will go to multiple fabrication services to maximize accessibility.

These three examples of 3D printing in impoverished nations show just how important 3D printing is and will continue to be to aiding those in need. With further development, 3D printing should allow people to receive prosthetics and organ transplants more easily.

– Jacob Creswell
Photo: Wikimedia