Growth within Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of Europe, found on the Balkan Peninsula and borders Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. This nation has been through a multitude of financial struggles, yet there has been continued growth within Bosnia and Herzegovina. The country is now on the path to stable economic development.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Rates continue to improve substantially. For example, the unemployment rate among adults decreased from 25.4 percent in 2016 to about 20.5 percent in the first six months of 2017. This is a meaningful advancement for the country.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is also a candidate nation, which signifies that it could potentially be a partner within the European Union. This is a great opportunity for Bosnia and Herzegovina as it could accelerate the country’s economic and political systems even more quickly.

In addition to this hopeful alliance, the World Bank assists Bosnia and Herzegovina by both funding initiatives and formulating a new growth model.

Projects for Growth

Growth within Bosnia and Herzegovina begins with foreign aid from international organizations, particularly the World Bank, which will implement advanced infrastructural and economic structures within the country.

There are now 11 active projects within Bosnia and Herzegovina that will hasten reforms, and the World Bank will lend an overall $521.63 million to the nation.

Better Than Before

“Better than Before — Rebuilding Bosnia and Herzegovina” is one of the many projects that are currently active. The country witnessed devastating floods that impacted 25 percent of the population. Since the economy is agriculturally-based, they lost approximately 15 percent of the country’s GDP. This initiative salvaged 248 infrastructure facilities and helped 580,000 individuals.

“Banking Sector Strengthening Project” improves “banking regulation, supervision and resolution capacity and by enhancing the governance of the Entity development banks.” This will better banking among every sector since they plan to replace obsolete banking styles with improved strategies that will promote economic development.

“Bosnia and Herzegovina Employment Support Program” will increase private sector opportunities and jobs for citizens. It will allow better interaction and discourse for employers, employees, public policy makers, etc. It will also allow the government to expand active labor market programs.

There are eight more projects that will accelerate growth within Bosnia and Herzegovina. They address public health programs, transportation systems and energy efficiency.

New Model for Growth within Bosnia and Herzegovina

Growth within Bosnia and Herzegovina also starts with a new economic strategy. The new framework consists of structural reforms within the public and private sector.

The World Bank will:

  • Encourage public policies that better public efficacy
  • Create and implement initiatives that hasten private sector advancement
  • Implement new strategies to counteract natural disasters/emergency crises

The World Bank will guide and fund this new growth model for Bosnia and Herzegovina and will continually advise the financing so economic growth occurs more rapidly.

Conclusion

The World Bank’s robust presence within Bosnia and Herzegovina is vital to its development as a sovereign state. This nation represents countries’ ability and capacity to progress and change economically.

Its history is sad and unfortunate, yet thankfully, Bosnia and Herzegovina is recovering and growing. The country has earned the right to be an E.U. candidate country.

– Diana Hallisey
Photo: Flickr

Girls’ Education in Bosnia and HerzegovinaHistorically, Bosnia and Herzegovina was made up of two countries — the first, Bosnia, and the second, Herzegovina. Bosnia was controlled by the Ottoman Empire from 1463 until approximately 1978. At that time, Bosnia was taken over by Great Britain who implemented new schools and further nuanced the governmental structure of Bosnia.

Bosnia and Herzegovina 

Bosnia and Herzegovina traditionally maintained a sort of strict patriarchal society throughout its history, particularly while under Ottoman rule when the official religious structure was Islam (patriarchy is one of the most distinctive traits of a Muslim society). Currently, over half of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina adheres to the Islamic religion, followed closely by adherents of Christianity.  

It seems to be no stretch that the patriarchal heritage is present, although it is slowly weakening. Its presence is still making large impacts on the opinions of girls’ education in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the way it is implemented.

A Cultural Problem

The gender traditions held in a patriarchal society dictate the types as well as the quality of education that different genders receive. In some cities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, banning females from completing elementary school is an existing and acceptable roadblock to male/female equality that is based on Bosnian societal values. One such example is in the capital city of Sarajevo, where girls’ education is not permitted past third grade.

This lack of gender equality not only alienates a large portion of the society but also contributes to large cracks in the nation’s weakened economy. The population demographics in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 60 percent female and 40 percent male. By limiting girls’ education in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the nation is effectively depriving well over half of its citizens from gaining the knowledge and skills that could contribute to the country’s financial prosperity.

Gendered Education 

Despite the gender disparity in formal education, a different type of schooling is employed for females that do not complete secondary or even primary education.

The roles of housewife and mother are extremely valued in Bosnian culture, so much so that some females transfer from the mainstream schooling system in order to focus on acquiring the “necessary” skills that Bosnians revere in society for females. This education is typically received at home where the girls learn cooking, housekeeping and demeanor expectations.  

Even though the gender disparity in Bosnian educational systems is alive and present, initiatives have been implemented to dissolve the disparity, opening up avenues for cultural change. In 2003, the Bosnian government issued a law on gender equality in Bosnia and Herzegovina that covers equality in all areas of society, most significantly the workplace and educational institutions.

Literacy Rates, Family Values and the Future

Although girls’ education in Bosnia and Herzegovina is sometimes neglected in favor of male education (as tradition dictates), female literacy rates still remain almost as high as males’. This is positive news as such figures mean that more and more girls are continuing their education on into adulthood.

Further, despite city educational bans for females and oftentimes protests from fathers, an increasing amount of mothers are recognizing the need to educate their daughters in order to set them up for future success. Consequently, this shift in perspective has increased female enrollment in schooling over the last several decades.

This provides a hopeful future for girls’ education in the country, one that hopefully sparks a new tradition of female education, literacy and self-empowerment.

– Alexandra Ferrigno
Photo: Flickr

Facts About Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Balkan country of Bosnia and Herzegovina, most commonly known as Bosnia, is infamous for ethnic wars that ripped Yugoslavia apart in the mid-1990s, peaking in the country with the massacre at Srebrenica. Although the country has made several improvements since the end of the war, 20 years later, Bosnia still struggles with poverty. In order to gain a better understanding of the issue, below are the top 10 facts about poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

10 Facts About Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina

  1. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a small country with a population of only 3.8 million people. Despite its small size, however, about 18.56 percent, or 640,000 people, live in absolute poverty in Bosnia. Aside from the nearly one-fifth of the population already in poverty, approximately 50 percent of the country is vulnerable to becoming poor. This vulnerability is largely due to factors including lack of education, economic opportunity and recovery after the war.
  2. Poverty between rural and urban areas is prevalent at unequal rates. In rural areas, 19 percent of rural citizens live in poverty while the poverty rate in urban areas is only 9 percent. Despite higher poverty rates and lower wages in rural areas, 60 percent of people continue to live in rural areas. This is largely due to the “agricultural safety net” of higher social protection payments, a healthier environment and more overall job security than in urban cities.
  3. The level of poverty in children is also disproportionate to the national poverty rate. Around 22 percent of children are part of poor families, making them more likely than adults to be poor. This also means that large families in Bosnia are poorer than smaller families in the country. Risks for high poverty levels in children include lack of education as well as intergenerational poverty transfer, which–particularly in rural areas–perpetuates poverty in these larger families.
  4. The life expectancy at birth in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 76.6 years. For females, this number is higher with a life expectancy of 79.2 years. For males, life expectancy is 74.1 years. Death rates, on the other hand, are significantly higher for males than females, likely due to war and its aftermath. Males had a death rate of 130 per 1,000 inhabitants while that of females is only 66 per 1,000 inhabitants.
  5. Gender inequality is also prevalent in Bosnia and Herzegovina with female employment significantly lower than male employment. Among the poorest 40 percent in the country, only 15 percent of females are in the labor market, compared to 42 percent for males. Female employment rates are different among the wealthiest 60 percent, of which 32 percent of women are active in the labor force.
  6. Despite improved economic growth in Bosnia, the unemployment rate is still alarmingly high with almost a third of working-class citizens unemployed. Youth unemployment is even higher, ranking first in the world with 62.3 percent of youth ages 15-24 unemployed. The high levels of youth unemployment are driven by corruption, nepotism in the workforce and overall economic stagnation.
  7. Bosnia’s war left almost one million people displaced after it ended in 1995. The country went from having a population of 4.3 million in 1990 to an estimated population of 3.8 million in 2018. Even 15 years after the end of the war, approximately 115,000 people were internally displaced. The number of internally displaced people, or IDPs, has decreased to 99,000 people in 2017 along with about 18,000 refugees in the country.
  8. Poverty levels are higher for IDPs and other minorities in Bosnia. Children with disabilities, Romany and other ethnic minorities and IDPs have the highest vulnerability to poverty in Bosnia. The aftermath of war, as well as lack of education and stigma against minorities, has only increased the likelihood of poverty for them.
  9. Bosnia and Herzegovina has an Humand Development Index (HDI) of .75, which is considered high when compared globally. Better infrastructure, more stability and economic opportunity after the end of the war contribute to the increase in development. Despite this growth, the country’s HDI is one of the lowest in Europe, only higher than that of Armenia, Macedonia, Ukraine and Moldova.
  10. Bosnia’s economy has continued to grow since its independence, offering citizens a hope of better living conditions and decreased poverty in the long-term. In recent years, Bosnia and Herzegovina has maintained over 2 percent GDP growth since 2015 and has gone from a GDP of USD $16.9 billion to one of USD $18.17 billion.

Bosnia and Herzegovina struggles to fully overcome the tragedy of its recent past. Despite this, economic and developmental growth have offered Bosnians more, albeit limited, opportunities. Poverty, however, continues to be the main issue for many Bosnians, particularly those in rural areas and minorities. With better education and increased work opportunities for youth and rural citizens alike, Bosnia will continue to improve the standard of life for its people.

– Matthew Cline
Photo: Google

How the Media Misrepresents Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a beautifully scenic country filled with small towns, cultural experiences and long-standing traditions. However, it is also a country with a history of genocide, poverty and weak government and oftentimes, the media zeros in the most on the latter aspects. The following is a discussion on how the media misrepresents Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Facts

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a relatively high crime rate due to petty thefts, violent crimes and even organized crime — a normalized idea in the country. Since the Bosnian War, the country experienced divisiveness and a near 20 percent of Bosnians live in poverty. The destruction of homes, buildings and infrastructure from the Bosnian War served as a large contributor to these societal occurrences. For context, these numbers compare to a United States poverty rate of 12.7 percent in 2016.

A once thriving country, how much has this really changed? What is Bosnia and Herzegovina like beneath the shadow of its most recent war? Below are a few key ways of how the media misrepresents Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Crime, Community and Division

Like all countries, Bosnia and Herzegovina experience crime; however, despite media attention to the issue, the overall crime rate in Bosnia and Herzegovina has dropped by over nine percent from 2016 to 2017.

Currently, Bosnia and Herzegovina experience residual ethnic tensions leftover from the Bosnian War. This has, at times, filled the country with a great amount of division, especially regarding the current elections which brought ethnic divisions to the surface. To add fuel to this fire, refugees from Syria, Afghanistan and Pakistan have started entering Bosnia and Herzegovina in droves. This has rocked the balance of the country’s seemingly low ethnic tolerance.

However, despite these facts and how the media misrepresents Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country prides itself on its religious and ethnic diversity. This is most apparent when speaking with everyday citizens, as opposed to conversing with extremists or minority members.

In an interview with a native to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sanela Hotic, whose family was not only displaced by the Bosnian war but experienced the loss of both her father and brother, expresses memories of her hometown of Bratunac. She recalls it being, “very peaceful and quiet,” saying, “everyone got along and were unified by a sense of community; all parents were everyone’s parents, all kids, everyone’s kids. We were all one.”

She goes on to say that religion did not play a factor in determining whether people got along. In her words, “they just did.” The sense of community spread further than the surface, Sanela explains, citing memories of celebrating both Eid, an Islamic holiday signifying the end the fasting period of Ramadan as well as Christmas with her Christian neighbors.

Government Structure

Since the Bosnian War, Bosnia and Herzegovina has dedicated attention to the restructuring and rebuilding of a functioning government. While this task proved difficult, the citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina loyally dedicated themselves to seeing this goal through.

There have been several failed attempts at structuring a new government, and none without criticism from media outlets who often fault the nation for its failed attempts. But despite how the media misrepresents Bosnia and Herzegovina for government failures, citizens have not given up on their country and continue to push for better representatives and new laws.

Tradition

Bosnia and Herzegovina is home to the city of Mostar and its long-standing tradition of bridge diving. This annual event has been a method used for males to impress females for centuries. Within the last few years, the diving tradition has turned into a competition that thousands of people gather to watch.

A “cliff diving” competition, sponsored by Red Bull, will host cliff diving competition finals in Mostar. One can only assume this contest is due to the intense challenge provided by the newly rebuilt bridge of 2003. 

Sightseeing

If someone is looking for things to do on a visit to Bosnia and Herzegovina, an interesting stop might include the Sarajevo Olympic Stadium. In 1984, the country hosted the Winter Olympics in the capital city of Sarajevo, and the Olympic stadium is still around today and is available for tours that include not only the stadium but also the Olympic mountains.

Further in the sightseeing category is a visit to Guber water in Srebrenica which is said to possess healing effects. This fact is likely due to the high iron content of the water which can be helpful for those dealing with iron deficiency or anemia.

Cuisine

Bosnia and Herzegovina is also known for its Ottoman-Empire-influenced cuisine. Some more famous cuisine items in the country include Turkish coffee and chevap, a pita stuffed with sausages. Bosnia and Herzegovina is also well-known for its variety and quality of desserts, one of which includes baklava, which also exists in Greek cuisine.

Despite how the media misrepresents Bosnia and Herzegovina, it is a culturally flourishing nation home to many religions, ethnicities and communities bound together by a sense of unity. In the coming years, Bosnia and Herzegovina will continue to rebuild itself while the world watches their continued progress.

– Alexandra Ferrigno
Photo: Flickr

Poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) signed the Dayton Accords twenty-three years ago to ensure peace throughout the country. However, Bosnians were left picking up the pieces from the war and many still deal with the mental, emotional and economic effects today. According to The World Bank, as of 2015,
16.9 percent of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s population lives below the poverty line.

Complicated Government

The Dayton agreement split Bosnia and Herzegovina into two parts: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Republika Srpska. The Dayton Accords ended conflict but put a hold on ethnic disputes within the country, thereby leaving a complex system of governance.

According to an article by The Guardian, “Since the end of the war, political allegiance has been usually based on ethnic identity.” Many people throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina want an end to corrupt politicians and want their leaders to focus on the country’s economic stagnation and unemployment.

Why is Unemployment So High?

As stated above, the political system of Bosnia and Herzegovina is anything but simple. Due to ethnic and political divides, the country still deals with constant tension.

Many companies and investors were hurt by the war; therefore, investors are hesitant to invest in the country. This absence leaves Bosnia and Herzegovina to rely on its domestic companies. The government’s partition widely affects the security of the job market, placing a major hindrance on the people.

Inequality

One major cause of poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina is inequality in the workforce between men and women. Not only do women have unequal opportunities in the workforce, but there are a lack of women who participate in the workforce in the first place. In addition, women’s incomes are usually less than their male counterparts.

However, the country’s efforts to transform its workforce cannot be ignored. The country has implemented laws to increase women’s participation in the labor market, and have even enforced laws to ensure representation in politics. According to a report by the World Bank, “The Election Law of BiH stresses that election candidates’ list must include both male and female candidates. The number of candidates of the less represented sex must be at least equal to a third of the total number of candidates on the list.”

Further Progress

There have been numerous programs implemented towards addressing poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina — for instance, the 2017 Bosnia and Herzegovina Support Employment Program. The goal of this program is to “increase formal private sector employment among targeted groups of registered job seekers.”

In this way, the program will reach out to help the government improve the effectiveness of labor market programs and implement an effective communication strategy to help job seekers. Several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have also made efforts to help alleviate poverty, such as through a program run by UNICEF. UNICEF’s program helps Roma, one of the largest minorities in BiH), mothers by holding classes on nutrition, breastfeeding and raising healthy children in hopes of breaking the cycle of child poverty throughout the country.

Although efforts have been made, it is crucial that the country continues to work to end corruption, ensure gender equality in the workforce, work towards improving ethnic divides in order to address poverty in Bosnia and Herzegovina and secure a better quality of life for all its people.

– Emma Martin
Photo: Flickr

U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a culturally and ethnically rich country situated in the western Balkan peninsula. The U.S. has contributed more than $1.7 billion in foreign aid to the country since 1996, and the country has allocated this aid to rebuilding itself as a nation after the effects of a devastating civil war.

Bosnia and Herzegovina was involved in an ethnically-motivated civil war from 1992 to 1995. It was not until 1995 that NATO intervened and a ceasefire (the Dayton Accords) was negotiated that finally ended the conflict. Today, the Dayton Accords are still in force.

How USAID Has Helped Bosnia and Herzegovina

The millions of dollars donated to the country have been allocated towards efforts of reconstruction, humanitarian assistance, economic development and military rebuilding. USAID assistance has had a large role in numerous projects and programs to get the country back on its feet and helping it become a thriving and economically stable country.

USAID has laid out in its official fact sheet its aid to the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the following areas:

  • Rebuild
  • Create Jobs
  • Reduce Rural Poverty
  • Develop A Better Business Environment
  • Introduce a More Efficient Justice System
  • Increase Transparency and Accountability
  • Promote Tolerance and Acceptance
  • Support Marginalized and Vulnerable Groups

In 2016, the EU accepted Bosnia and Herzegovina’s application into the EU, but member states say the country should continue with reform, “including socioeconomic reforms, reforms in the area of rule of law and public administration.” Challenges including the country’s poor governance and an effort made by the Republika Srpska to move the country to secession has made its commitment to the EU-driven package harder to accomplish. Nevertheless, economic reforms made by Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to join the EU has led to it becoming one of the fastest growing economies in Eastern Europe.

How the U.S. Benefits From Foreign Aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina

According to the Department of State, “U.S. assistance will help BiH implement this reform package and improve government accountability and efficiency, trade with Europe, and inter-ethnic dialogue and reconciliation.” The U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina by securing the country’s stability in the region.

With U.S. assistance, the U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina joining the EU would bring Bosnia and Herzegovina one step closer to joining NATO, creating a stronger alliance with the U.S. Bosnia and Herzegovina has been vocal since 2008 about its desire to join NATO. Not only did the country join the Partnership for Peace, but has contributed to NATO projects in Afghanistan. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s cooperation with NATO will not only provide defense for the U.S., but will also increase trade between the two countries.

Continued efforts from Bosnia and Herzegovina to reform its social, political, and economic situation in order to enter the EU would allow the EU’s organizations, such as its Common Security and Defense Policy, to ensure that the U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

– Emma Martin

Photo: Flickr

Bosnian War Facts

The Bosnian War was incredibly brutal and impacted millions of lives. Below are 10 important Bosnian War facts: how it began, what happened and how it ended.

Top 10 Bosnian War Facts

  1. The state of affairs in Bosnia and Herzegovina began declining when politics became chaotic with the rapid decline of the Yugoslavian economy. Also playing a role was the collapse of communism and a structured government and various ethnic groups vying for control of the area. The Serbs, Muslims and Croats living in Bosnia each desired to appropriate Bosnia and Herzegovina’s territory for their own countries and take control of the government and political field.
  2. Bosnian Croats and Muslims feared that Milošević, the leader of the Socialist Party of Serbia, would take their land, so they called for the independence of Herzeg-Bosnia. The Serbs, however, had the same idea. Bosnia and Herzegovina’s independence was declared on March 3, 1992, and was recognized by the U.S. and the European Community on April 6, 1992.
  3. On April 6, 1992, the Serbs began the Siege of Sarajevo, which lasted until Feb. 29, 1996. The Serbian paramilitary forces began the siege by holding positions inside the city and in the hills surrounding Sarajevo. By the first week of May, the Serbs had surrounded the whole city, which cut Sarajevo off from food, medicine, water, electricity, fuel and other supplies. The Serbs began firing on Sarajevo with advanced artillery but faced heavy defense from those mobilized with weapons within the city. Because the Serbs were facing opposition, they began to terrorize the city with intense gunfire and snipers. The Siege of Sarajevo lasted for 47 months and remains the longest siege in modern history.
  4. With Sarajevo, as well as several other cities isolated by force, the supply of food, utilities and communication became extremely limited and spread thin throughout the territory. This caused many cases of malnutrition and many citizens lost an average of up to 33 pounds while some others lost their lives due to lack of access to supplies.
  5. Bosnian Serbs began ethnic cleansing of large areas occupied by non-Serbs. The genocide destroyed entire villages and thousands of Bosnians were forced out of their homes and taken to detention camps where they were raped, tortured, deported or killed. The Serbians used rape in the Bosnian War as a tactic to destroy relationships, families and communities.
  6. One of the most lethal Bosnian War facts came when Gen. Ratko Mladic led Serbian troops in capturing Srebrenica, previously declared by the U.N. as a safe area, and killed almost 8,000 Muslim men. The U.N. later indicted Radovan Karadžić, orchestrator of the attack on Sarajevo, and General Mladic for genocidal war crimes.
  7. The Bosnian government was prohibited from providing updated and necessary weaponry that the Serbian and Croatian armies maintained due to an international arms embargo imposed throughout the Bosnian War.
  8. Although the U.N. Protection Force sent troops to supervise humanitarian aid and protect declared safe areas, the U.N. overall refused to intercede in the Bosnian War.
  9. After NATO’s negotiations in Dayton, Ohio, in 1995, a final ceasefire was imposed and declared to bring an end to the Bosnian War. NATO enforced this through air strikes until the leaders agreed to the ceasefire and signed the Dayton Peace Accords in Paris on Dec. 14, 1995. The agreement allowed for a NATO peacekeeping enforcement group to maintain a permanent presence and oversight in the country.
  10. Throughout the Bosnian War, more than 250,000 people lost their lives and many more were displaced from their homes.

Even today, as a result of these Bosnian War facts, the territory remains highly divided between two sections: Muslim-Croat and the Serbian Republic. Both sections face a continuous fight against poverty, unemployment and ethnic discord.

Photo: Flickr

Credit Access in Bosnia and HerzegovinaPeople often sing the praises of microfinance as a means of encouraging entrepreneurship and growth in developing countries. Without a doubt, microloans are a resourceful tool. With the encouragement of the international community, they have been used rather extensively to help improve the ease of credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina. That being said, it is important to view microloans not as an economic panacea, but as a component of the overall financial sector that can and does affect other aspects of the developing economy.

The economic crisis that began in 2008 continues to affect credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition to causing extended deflation, which hurts small businesses, it also left lending institutions very risk-averse, especially where small and medium-sized enterprises are concerned.

The situation is not all bad. There is an unusually large number of financial institutions in the country and the demand for credit is beginning to increase as the economy grows. This increase in demand is also caused by the growth of many small businesses. Unfortunately, conservative lending practices mean that while it would appear that would-be borrowers have plenty of options, it can still be difficult to get a loan. Additionally, high taxes and complicated regulations mean that there is a large informal sector in the country, further complicating the small business environment. Some of these informal operations are able to undercut their formal counterparts, making competition difficult and hampering people’s ability to get a loan.

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) is attempting to bring about change. Its Development Credit Authority Loan Guarantee facility backs up to 50 percent of the loan principal for borrowers deemed too risky for a regular loan. USAID is improving credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina by enabling borrowers to secure financing who would otherwise be rejected.

However, it is important to consider how improving credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina might have unintended impacts. This growth in access to microloans without broader changes in the macroeconomy has meant that while it is easier to secure financing to start a business, the same cannot be said for securing financing to grow an existing business.

While the international community has stepped in to encourage microloans, they have not done the same to encourage banks to make larger loans available to medium-sized enterprises seeking to grow. While many banks claim to offer this kind of financing, the reality is that many will only lend to the most exceptionally qualified applicants, and even then the rates and terms offered may simply not be feasible for the borrower.

This means that there is an ever-growing cohort of businesses in the country that are too large to benefit from microloans but too small or still too risky to borrow from domestic banks. This is a major hurdle to clear before credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina can really be said to have improved.

It is also important to consider the impact that improved credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina may have on education. One recent study found that 16 to 19-year-olds in Bosnia and Herzegovina whose parents received microfinancing for their family businesses were nine percent less likely to be regularly attending school. This figure jumped to 19 percent when the adults in the household had only a primary school education.

This is not to say that improving credit access in Bosnia and Herzegovina for small businesses isn’t a worthy endeavor. It most certainly is, and it can and does lift people out of poverty. However, it is important to also provide continued support and acknowledge the ways that this issue interacts with Bosnia and Herzegovina’s broader economic circumstances to ensure that this money is able to make a real difference.

– Michaela Downey

Photo: Google

sustainable agriculture in bosnia and herzegovina
Sustainable agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina is of utmost importance since the nation’s independence from Yugoslavia in 1992. Is status as a war-torn region ended after signing a peace treaty in December 1995, which enabled the formation of a complex state with two entities and one state district.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is comprised of hilly mountainous regions as well as fertile low-lands that are suitable for agriculture. It is one of the highest-ranking bio-diverse regions of Europe, as the region is comprised of various animal species and plants. This diversity helps make sustainable agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina achievable.

Agriculture is the backbone of the region’s rural sector and functions as an important aspect of the economy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Agriculture constitutes about 20 percent of the total employment though, according to a study in 2017, post-war conditions and complex socio-economic structure has negatively impacted its development.

Land Resources and Best Practices in Agriculture

Total surface area suitable for cultivation in Bosnia and Herzegovina is about 1.6 million hectares. The land is segregated into three parts:

  • The valleys around the rivers Una, Sava, Vrbas, Bosna, Drina, Sana and Spreča (which consists of high quality soil) are suitable for production of vegetables, fruits and crops like wheat, barley, soybean, corn, plums, apples and pears. They also grow medicinal herbs and industrial crops, such as fibers which are used to manufacture clothing.
  • The highlands which are less suitable for large scale cultivation are used for cattle-breeding, animal-feed production, barley for breweries and potatoes.
  • The Mediterranean region of the country is mainly comprised of low land, which has favorable weather and is suitable for greenhouse and open space farming. These methods help the large-scale cultivation of crops, vegetables, citrus fruits, farming fresh water fish and bee keeping.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has seen a trend of sustainable farming since the foundation of Bosnian Environmental Technologies Association (BETA) in 2000. BETA initiated the concept of organic farming in the regional label, and with the support of other international agencies, the association enhanced the promotion of organic agriculture practices among farmers.

As of 2017, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a surface area of 576 hectares devoted to organic farming. This is a lower percentage compared to neighboring countries, but the number steadily increases with the certified organic farming organization of the area; thus, organic farming works helps increase the  overall levels of sustainable agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The following strategies have been adapted to increase the sustainability of agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina:

  • Conserving cultivable land through soil erosion prevention (via physical barriers around plants).
  • Protecting quality of soil by maintaining moisture content, restoring organic matter and reducing CO2 emission from the soil.
  • Maximizing the cultivation of crops through modern plantation and crop rotation technique, using weed management strategies and incorporating integrated pest management systems.
  • Providing expert knowledge and education to farmers on innovative farming practices and ways to protect the farmland against climate change.
  • Building of reservoirs to preserve water for irrigation and other uses of agriculture.
  • Changing policy in agricultural sector so that farmers receive more financial support for using modern technology, tax incentives for their investment and risk insurance for their farming practices.

The Bees and Improving Agricultural Growth

The beekeeping sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina is a component of organic farming that comprises almost 1 percent of the total agricultural production. According to a Bosnia and Herzegovina statistics agency, there are almost 350,000 bee colonies in the country which produce around 2500 – 3000 tons of honey per year.

Various strategies have been adapted post-war to increase sustainable agriculture in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia and Herzegovina has fertile land and abundance of water bodies, but political tension between its two entities and lack of central governance deeply affects the prospect of agricultural growth of the country.

– Mahua Mitra

Photo: Flickr

cause of the bosnian war
The Bosnian War began in 1992 and lasted until 1995, though the cause of the Bosnian War has roots in World War II and its impact is still being felt in 2017. 
The war led to the deaths of around 100,000 civilians and soldiers. It also spurred a genocide of at least 25,000 Bosnian Muslims, also called Bosniaks.

In the aftermath of the Second World War, the Balkan states of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and Macedonia became a part of the People’s Republic of Yugoslavia, a communist country held together by its leader Josip Broz Tito. Part-Croat and part-Slovene, Tito checked both separatism and ethnic nationalism with stiff jail sentences.

Tito rebuilt Yugoslavia as a Communist federation of six equal republics, but ethnic conflict was never far from the surface. Serbians disliked Tito’s recognition of the Macedonians and the Muslims of Bosnia-Herzegovina as distinct nationalities. However, these bad relationships alone were not the cause of the Bosnian War. The collapse of Communism in the Balkan states was punctuated by Tito’s death in 1980. Following this, the Balkan states clamored for independence.

Slobodan Milosevic rose to power in Yugoslavia in 1985 as a lightning rod for nationalism. Milosevic was a leader who deliberately created conflict between Serbians, Croatians and Muslim Bosniaks (the three main ethnic groups in the region). Milosevic, also called “The Butcher of the Balkans” took advantage of the ethnic tensions that would be the cause of the Bosnian War.

Croatia and Slovenia fought alongside Germany and Austria in World War I, while Serbia fought alongside the allies. Because of this, Serbs regarded themselves as the dominant partners when they joined the Croats and Slovenes in 1918 to found the state what would be called Yugoslavia.

By using old grudges, stirring up nationalistic emotions, and inciting dreams of a “Greater Serbia,” a country made up of only Serbians, Milosevic succeeded in rallying support for himself. By 1971 in Bosnia, Muslims represented the largest single population group. In a 1991 census, Bosnia’s population of some four million was nearly half Bosniak.

Bosnia’s Serbs, led by a man named Radovan Karadzic and backed by Milosevic, resisted and threatened bloodshed when Bosnia proclaimed its independence in 1992. The Serbs wished to remain part of Yugoslavia and create a nation only for Serbians.

Two days after the European Community and the United States recognized Bosnia’s independence, the Serbian Democratic party — whose members wanted to be part of the “Greater Serbia” — launched an offensive with the bombardment of Bosnia’s capital, Sarajevo.

The Bosnian War was marked by ethnic cleansing, with thousands of civilians killed and millions displaced. On July 11, 1995, Serbian forces attacked and overwhelmed the city of Srebrenica, a city the U.N. had designated as a safe haven in 1993. The forces separated the Bosniak civilians at Srebrenica, putting the women and girls on buses and sending them away while killing the men and boys on the spot or bussing them off to mass killing sites. An estimated 8,000 people died in the massacre.

Following this, awareness and international outcry over the war reached its zenith. In November 1995, the United States sponsored peace talks between the Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats, resulting in the creation of a federalized Bosnia divided between a Croat-Bosniak federation and a Serb republic.

Tribunals over the war crimes committed during the war have been ongoing for 23 years, with Serbia only acknowledging the massacre of Srebrenica in 2004. Milosevic was jailed in 2002 on 66 counts of genocide and war crimes and died in his cell in March of 2006.

Last month in 2017, a Croatian general charged with war crimes had his sentence of 20 years upheld, and instead of submitting himself he chose to drink poison in the middle of the courtroom.

– Sam Bramlett

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