Human Rights in Nagorno-Karabakh
In 1994, the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan signed a ceasefire agreement that many politicians hoped would put a stop to years of conflict between the two states. When the Russian tsarist regime collapsed in 1917, Azerbaijan and Armenia fought over control of the landlocked mountainous Nagorno-Karabakh, a region in the Caucasus the size of Connecticut. After the Red Army annexed the Caucasian republics to the Soviet Union, the Armenian-majority territory of Nagorno-Karabakh became an autonomous region of Azerbaijan.

Seven decades later, when the Soviet Union began disintegrating in the late 1980s, Armenian secessionists and Azerbaijani troops launched a war over Nagorno-Karabakh. The outbreak of violence claimed around 20,000 lives and created one million refugees. After the 1994 ceasefire, Nagorno-Karabakh declared its independence, but the international community continues to recognize the war-torn territory as a part of Azerbaijan.

Five Facts About Human Rights in Nagorno-Karabakh

The “Four Day War” in April 2016—an outbreak between the two warring parties that killed at least 200 people—ended more than two decades of ceasefire and put the human rights records of Azerbaijan and Armenia into the spotlight. Here are five facts about human rights in Nagorno-Karabakh:

  1. High-ranking Azerbaijani officials have spread hate speech and incited violence against the country’s Armenian minority, according to a 2016 Ombudsman Report. In November 2012, Azeri President Ilham Aliyev took to Twitter to declare that Armenia “is actually a colony, an outpost run from abroad, a territory artificially created on ancient Azerbaijani land.” Public statements like Aliyev’s violate Article 4 (c) of the U.N. International Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination, which bars authorities from promoting racial discrimination.  
  2. Azerbaijani forces ruthlessly murdered civilians when they invaded Nagorno-Karabakh on April 2, 2016. Soldiers shot the elderly, infirm and young, and the targeted shelling of residential buildings killed or wounded more than two dozen civilians, many of whom were minors. The Ombudsman found Azerbaijan in violation of the Geneva Convention of 1949, which delineates special protections for the sick, wounded and pregnant during war.
  3. While Armenia has instituted civil and political liberties since its independence in 1991, Amnesty International has called out the Armenian government for silencing journalists investigating the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. According to the report, Armenians show little tolerance for “unarmenian” views of the conflict, with individuals disagreeing with mainstream opinion labeled as traitors. In 2017, the European Court of Human Rights delivered 12 judgments concerning Armenia, 11 of which found the country in violation of the European Convention of Human Rights.
  4. With the exception of The HALO Trust and the International Committee of the Red Cross, which helps reunite family members who have gone missing in combat, the international community provides little support for human rights in Nagorno-Karabakh. Many NGOs know that entering Nagorno-Karabakh would make them ‘persona non grata’ in Azerbaijan, preventing them from returning in the future.
  5. Despite Azerbaijan’s threats, the Lady Cox Rehabilitation Center—an organization that helps individuals with disabilities—has made substantial progress for human rights in Nagorno-Karabakh. Wars in the early 1990s and, more recently, in April 2016 injured many civilians, leaving some with physical disabilities; infrastructure for wheelchairs and medical facilities for treatment, however, were scarce. The Lady Cox Rehabilitation Center provides treatment for 1000 patients annually and supports therapists that travel to individuals who cannot travel to Stepanakert, the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh, to receive care. In 2017, the Center opened a department for children with autism.

Human rights in Nagorno-Karabakh will improve with increased stability. In July 2018, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan announced that he was ready to talk peace in Nagorno-Karabakh. A month later, Russia and Germany proactively offered to facilitate a settlement that would secure long-lasting peace. Once Armenia and Azerbaijan come to terms with the fate of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, it is hoped that humanitarian organizations will step in to monitor conditions on the ground and heal old wounds.

– Mark Blekherman
Photo: Flickr

Armenia

In Armenia, hunger has been a problem faced by its citizens since the country gained independence in 1991. However, through steady economic growth and the implementation of strategies from global agencies, the country’s hunger issue has been slowly reducing. Here are the top ten facts about hunger in Armenia:

  1. Hunger is closely related to poverty, as people that live under the poverty line tend to be the most food insecure. As of 2015, six percent of the Armenian population was undernourished. Hunger in Armenia tends to rise and fall as a result of the country’s economic stability. Since the global financial crisis of 2008, food insecurity in the country has almost doubled, as an estimated 16 percent of families were classified as food insecure in 2015.
  2. Armenia is a low to middle income, landlocked country that relies on imports for most food. Because of this, the country and its citizens are reliant on other countries for stability. When surrounding countries are in financial downturn, it takes a negative effect on Armenians as well. The country has had slow economic development since 1991 when borders with neighboring countries Turkey and Azerbaijan were established post-Armenian independence. Due in large to its slow economic growth, 29.4 percent of Armenians lived in poverty as of 2016.

  3. In Armenia, the effect of hunger is visible in two main ways: stunted growth and being overweight. Approximately 9 percent of Armenian children under five have had their growth stunted while 14 percent were overweight as of 2015. To some, it may be surprising that people can be overweight while still food insecure, but it is more common than one might think. Because many people who are food insecure are also impoverished, they tend to purchase food based on quantity over quality. This results in the intake of less-nutritious foods in low-income areas. In countries like Armenia, it has resulted in many of its poorer citizens becoming overweight.

  4. Armenia has reduced the country’s poverty rate from 54 percent in 1998 to 28 percent in 2008. After a brief rise and stagnation in the poverty rate, at approximately 32 percent after the global economic crises, the country’s poverty rate has again begun to fall.

  5. Organizations like the World Economic Forum and the World Bank are considering ways to reanalyze the causes behind Armenia’s hunger problems. More reasons for hunger, like education, health and labor, are being examined in addition to poverty.

  6. As Armenia’s hunger problem is examined from various perspectives, new solutions are being presented to combat the country’s food insecurity.

  7. One solution from the National Strategic Review of Food Safety and Nutrition is to apply healthcare, social protections and regional policies in order to reduce the disparities in hunger and malnutrition throughout Armenia. These policies will target hunger and food insecurity with strategies not traditionally used in the country.

  8. An additional solution is to raise public awareness about healthy nutrition and how to make better decisions about food choices. These public awareness and education campaigns would take place in remote communities where food education is not prevalent, giving way to unhealthy choices. The education campaign will also serve as a preventative measure against malnutrition and undernourishment by focusing on sustainable food choices.

  9. The solution to hunger and food insecurity in Armenia may be in the revision of policy that would protect the most underserved people. Part of this solution will include commencing vouchers to the unemployed, social assistance programs to children 3-5 years of age, as well as monetary and non-monetary plans to ensure nutritious food intake to beneficiary families of assistance programs.

  10. Armenia is a country still growing and recovering from many outside factors that have hindered the young country’s development. However, with newly proposed sustainable solutions and the promise of continued economic security, the country is beginning to address its hunger and food insecurity problem.

Armenia’s hunger problem is a complex and multi-causal issue. However, through steady advancement and changes to its economy and food programs, solutions are possible. These strategies are only a few of many to relieve hunger in the country. These top ten facts about hunger in Armenia are a brief way to understand a longstanding problem.

– Savannah Hawley

Photo: Flickr

Girls’ Education in Armenia
The great emphasis on education in Armenia could be attributed to the nation’s 1600-year-old history of literacy and its treatment of schools as the basis for cultural and political survival. Article 39 of the Constitution of the Republic of Armenia (1995) ensures the right to education for all citizens of the Republic. In recent times the government has tried to ensure gender-equality in education, health, power, decision-making and other areas as demonstrated by its strategic action plans.

While Armenia does display an impressive gender-parity in primary education, there are several aspects to girls’ education in Armenia which in turn impact the socio-economic and cultural standing of Armenian women. Let us understand some of these facets of girls’ education in Armenia.

Gender-Inclusive Education

Armenia has a 12-year school education system. Grade 9 graduates are required to move to a high school to continue their education or choose a Vocational Education and Training institution. At tertiary educational level, students choose either a general stream (humanities, sciences, etc.)  or a vocational stream (agriculture, construction, information and technologies, etc.). According to the World Bank, the Armenian government aims to incorporate its gender-equality agenda into the educational system. In 2011, the National Statistical Service reported a “universal enrollment rate among both boys and girls at the primary level and a 99.6 percent enrollment rate among girls” compared to “98.4 percent among boys at the secondary level.”

In a recent World Bank report titled, ‘Armenia Country Gender Assessment,’ it is reported that a dramatic growth of up to 57 percent among women in higher education occurred during the year 2012-2013. However, despite the growth in the percentage of women in higher education, the labor market still encounters a lower participation rate among women.

The researchers attribute this gap to the difference in subject-matter choices offered to boys and girls at the tertiary education level. While women are more likely to study the social sciences, health, education and other non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) subjects, men are more likely to choose STEM-related fields or vocational education, which in turn leads to better-paying jobs. These findings point to the  “aspirational (behavioral), informational and institutional” factors of the tertiary level of education in Armenia.

Women’s Representation in the Workforce

The Asian Development Bank reinforces that a gender-parity in enrollment rates in Armenia, from primary to higher education, does exist. However, despite the tendency for a larger number of women to acquire postgraduate education, they lag behind men in the labor market due to their choice of “traditionally female” domains of study. In addition, women more often tend to succumb to cultural pressures of marriage and family duties. Factors such as the quality of education, gender stereotypes, and school curricula have been found to also influence and determine many women’s decisions.

Armenia has a history of including gender-inclusion education that dates back to the 19th century; however, a survey conducted by the World Bank found that 54 percent of Armenian teachers hold the opinion that girls and boys should be treated differently, because “they are essentially different.” School-textbooks and curricula are also responsible for promoting stereotypical and traditional ideas of womanhood and serve to inadequately represent women, according to Iveta Silova, author of ‘Gender Analysis of Armenian School Curriculum and Textbooks.’ The study notes that Armenian language textbooks and literature rarely include or acknowledge the works or contributions of Armenian female writers and poets.

This omission of female authors limits “the scope of the country’s literary accomplishment to the work of men only.” Some of these challenges to girls’ education in Armenia ultimately leads to underrepresentation of women in political policy-making roles and the labor market, thereby perpetuating stereotypical female roles and causing a wide wage-gap between men and women.

Strategic Steps for Girls and Women in Armenia

The World Bank determined girls’ education across the world to be a “strategic development priority” that can lead to better educated and healthier women who are more aware of their socio-political and economic rights. This, in turn, can help build better communities and lift nations out of poverty.

The Armenian government has taken consistent steps towards ensuring gender-equality in the educational system. Its adoption of the Gender Policy Concept Paper in 2010 and the Law on Securing Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for Women and Men in 2013 are prime examples of such efforts. The educational reform proposals by the government are aimed at “democratization of the education sphere…establishing gender-balanced representation at all levels of the education sphere…and supporting equality of women and men in society, social justice, and enjoyment of social freedoms.”

Measures are being taken to improve girls’ education and are aided by the continued efforts of the World Bank, the European Union’s support towards modernization of education, and the UNDP’s goals to ensure “inclusive and equitable quality education” in Armenia.

– Jayendrina Singha Ray
Photo: Flickr

Gender Inequality in Armenia
Armenia is just one of the countries around the globe that has been, and still continues to be, greatly affected by gender inequality. While women have recently been granted more rights, they are still struggling to close the gap of gender inequality in Armenia. Women struggle to keep their independence not only at home, but also in the work place where they have far less opportunity and make significantly less money than men. This gender discrepancy is especially noticeable in the rural areas of the country. Several organizations have come together to try and end this unfortunate issue.

Organizations Take Steps Towards Gender Equality

In late 2017, the organization NEF UK launched a project that will provide services focused on women’s empowerment and gender equality. NEF has recognized that when women feel empowered, they experience less violence at home and in the workplace. NEF UK hopes to help at risk women gain financial independence, while also advocating for survivors of domestic abuse.

Another organization working to end gender inequality in Armenia is UNDP Armenia. Since 1992, UNDP Armenia has created projects — such as Women in Local Democracy — to achieve the goal of giving women more of a voice when it comes to the country’s economic development. Women with more representation in the government and able to participate in decision making is huge when it comes to female empowerment. Instances such as this create an improved understanding of society, and helps women gain independence and leadership skills.

Women’s Resource Center of Armenia

Among organizations focusing on projects to end gender inequality in Armenia is the Women’s Resource Center of Armenia, the first organization of its kind in the country. Co-founded by Lara Aharonian in 2003, the company aims to create a safe space and sense of community for all women.

They offer a variety of programs, such as “No One’s Perfect,” for mothers with young children, and also hold gatherings where women can come and share their ideas and views in a protected environment. Along with advocating and supporting the women of Armenia, WRCA also works with Syrian and Iraqi refugees, and offers a wide range of free resources, including language classes and job training.

Armenian Women Overcome Obstacles

In late 2017, Armenia passed a law that will criminalize domestic violence. In October of 2017, a petition addressed to the Prime Minister of Armenia was proposed on change.org. The petition received close to 3,000 signatures from people all over the world in support of this law that includes the prevention of domestic violence, and keeping past victims protected.

Women in Armenia face many challenges. With the threat of violence, and less access to high paying jobs, they are born into a society that expects them to stay home and provide for their family; they often don’t have the opportunity for much more than that. But there are many organizations and people, not just in Armenia, but all over the world, that are in support of the empowerment of women.

Armenian women are now able to access schooling and jobs, all while residing in safer environments surrounded by people who support them. Armenia has shown growth and it’s expected that the women of the country will continue to gain empowerment and experience less inequality.

– Allisa Rumreich
Photo: Flickr

How the U.S. Benefits from Foreign Aid to Armenia
Ever since Armenia gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, it has shared a mutually beneficial relationship with the U.S. As a country attempting to recover from widespread poverty and corruption, the benefits Armenia receives from organizations like the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) are clear. Yet, the U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Armenia are significant in their own right.

Some of these benefits include increased stability and independence so that Armenia can resist Russian pressure and have closer ties with the Euro-Atlantic community. Both politically and economically, the U.S. has much to gain from cultivating greater stability and economic growth in Armenia.

Achieving Government Stability

Since Armenian independence in 1991, the government has struggled to maintain a stable democracy the Armenian people can trust. Fortunately, USAID is working with both the government and citizens to build trustworthy institutions that work for the people. By creating stability in the region, the U.S. benefits directly from Armenian foreign aid by gaining a trustworthy political ally in the region that champions U.S. ideals and supports U.S. goals. These are a few ways USAID is helping to achieve this goal:

  1. Media for Engaged Civil Public Project
    One of the backbones of a strong democracy is a trustworthy media that properly informs its public. This program plans to set up a healthy media as well as media watchdogs to prevent excessive bias.
  2. Engaged Citizenry for a Responsible Government Project
    USAID is helping to increase activity in local government and create an engaged public. Many Armenians are uninformed about their government or do not believe they can make a difference. This program aims to change that.
  3. Local Government Reform Activity
    By helping to decentralize the Armenian government, USAID is helping to create natural checks and balances in the system and give power back to local areas.

These are just a few of the ways USAID is helping Armenia achieve a sustainable government. The U.S. plans to give just over $3 million for “Democracy, Human Rights, and Governance” as well as “Peace and Security” in 2019. In return, the U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Armenia through gaining a strong ally in the region that is trustworthy and stable.

The U.S. Benefits from Foreign Aid to Armenia by Developing a Trade Partner

With greater economic stability in Armenia, the country becomes a reliable trade partner for the U.S. While GDP growth in the country has steadily been on the rise in recent years, there is still progress to be made. In 2019, more than $3 million will be allocated through USAID for the express purpose of economic development. Some of the ways USAID plans to use this money to help Armenia are:

  1. The Partnership for Rural Prosperity Program
    Despite consistent GDP growth, Armenia still struggles in the disparity between urban centers and rural areas. This project aims to alleviate this gap by providing economic opportunities to rural regions, improving access to markets and reinforcing infrastructure.
  2. Agribusiness Teaching Center
    This program aims to educate the Armenian public on agriculture and agribusiness while conducting research to help local farmers. As a hub for agricultural knowledge, this center will provide a strong foundation upon which to build an agricultural community.
  3. Tax Reform Project
    This program hopes to create a more accessible dialogue between the lawmakers deciding tax rates and the citizens paying them. It also hopes to reform the tax code in a way that makes it easier for citizens to start small businesses.

Through these programs and others, foreign aid to Armenia is helping to develop a powerful ally that can work with the U.S. as a mutually beneficial trading partner. Programs such as these contribute to a strong trade relationship between the two countries, with the U.S.-Armenia Economic Task Force being an indicator of how well the relationship has developed.

Overall, the U.S. benefits from foreign aid to Armenia are numerous and significant. By investing in the people of this developing country, the U.S. gains a political and economic partner while helping alleviate poverty and corruption.

– Jonathon Ayers
Photo: Flickr

Tourism and Poverty in ArmeniaArmenia is not the first country one usually thinks of for a vacation. Some world organizations are taking the initiative to develop a sustainable tourism sector in Armenia. Tourism and poverty in Armenia are considered related factors, and the growth of tourism can have a large impact on alleviating poverty in the country.

Integrated Rural Tourism Development

Unfortunately, in Armenia, there has been a widening disparity in income between rural and urban regions. To potentially alleviate the disparity, the United Nations suggested the development of the tourism sector in rural communities and stated that they would assist with this development because of the reduced tourism infrastructure in Armenia.

The United Nations Development Programme and the Development Foundation of Armenia created the Integrated Rural Tourism Development Program on January 28, 2016, to support the development of tourism in Armenia, which would further sustainable economic growth. The increase in the role of tourism in the country would provide sustainable income-generating opportunities for rural populations.

Local Economic Infrastructure Development

Additionally, the World Bank contributes to Armenia’s local economy by strengthening economic growth and livelihoods. They assisted the Armenian government in 2014 to identify regional, mostly rural, development inequalities and then help prepare a tourism strategy to increase economic development.

The World Bank’s board of executive directors authorized a $55 million loan for the Local Economic Infrastructure Development Project on December 22, 2015, to help Armenia advance its infrastructure services and institutional capacity for tourism. The project called for the development of tourist destinations in rural regions of the country, potentially assisting the rural economies and addressing tourism and poverty in Armenia.

Laura E. Bailey, the World Bank Country Manager for Amenia, described “one of the major strengths of the proposed project is that it motivates the communities to preserve their unique Armenian cultural heritage.”

My Armenia

Since Armenia gained independence in 1991 from the Soviet Union, the country has been receiving yearly aid from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Between 2005 and 2012, the USAID started long-term development initiatives to increase Armenia’s economic competitiveness.

My Armenia is a cultural preservation program implemented by the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage, a research and education unit that advocates for a better understanding of cultural heritage in the United States and around the world through research, education and community commitment. The project is a collaboration between the people of Armenia, the Smithsonian and USAID.

The four-year My Armenia program, started on November 20, 2015, aspires to develop an understanding of the country’s living traditions and heritage sites. Long-term cultural vitality in addition to economic growth can be reached through the program’s methods of research, documentation, storytelling and capacity building.

All of the program’s methods assist in the main goal of My Armenia. Research and documentation in the program happens in collaboration with Armenian scholars and an extensive archival record. Cultural storytelling will delve deep into the intricacies of the culture not learned through general reading. Capacity building at local sites like museums and archaeological sites will build a repertoire of substantive historical material, leading to global interest and popularity.

Various international development organizations have implemented programs to help facilitate infrastructure in Armenia for sustainable tourism. The preservation of cultural heritage proves to instill cultural tourism that will assist in economic development. Tourism and poverty in Armenia are related through the benefits of sustainable tourism for economic development, especially in rural regions.

– Andrea Quade

Photo: Flickr

humanitarian aid to armenia

Humanitarian aid to Armenia has been continuously growing in large part due to the United States Agency for Intentional Development (USAID). Since 1992, USAID has been a crucial humanitarian aid donor to Armenia and its overall development as a country. Last year marked 25 years of diplomatic relations between USAID and Armenia.

USAID’s Commitment to Provide Humanitarian Aid to Armenia

USAID plays a significant role in helping Armenia overcome the challenges it faces as a developing country. USAID has provided “over $1 billion to improve the lives of the Armenian people, supporting their efforts to strengthen democratic, economic, and social governance.”

A few ways USAID has been vital with humanitarian aid to Armenia is by:

  1. Improving access to quality healthcare for Armenian citizens by extending free primary healthcare and maternity services.
  2. Establishing the “114” hotline that provides social service resources assistance to Armenians.
  3. Equipping and renovating two-thirds of Armenia’s neediest rural health facilities.
  4. Creating the American University of Armenia that trains Armenia’s future leaders, encourages civic engagement and promotes democratic values.
  5. Modernizing the Armenian American Wellness Center to become a state-of-the-art diagnostic facility now providing a host of health services to men and women.

USAID has implemented several humanitarian aid programs that help economic growth in Armenia. The Advanced Science and Partnerships for Integrated Resource Development program supports sustainable water resource management. Furthermore, the Partnership for Rural Prosperity promotes rural economic development in Armenia. Lastly, the Advanced Rural Development Initiative develops competitive rural value chains to increase incomes and improve livelihoods. It has been implemented in 48 rural communities in Syunik, Shirak and Lori marzes of Armenia.

USAID also provides humanitarian aid to Armenia in the form of developmental programs that assist in helping Armenian people acquire healthcare and skillsets for work. One such program provides Armenian tech students with training and research opportunities to prepare them for engineering projects.

Another program is the USAID-supported Center of Excellence for the Prevention of Childhood Blindness in Armenia. This initiative helps prevent lifelong blindness in premature babies and Armenian children.

The World Food Programme in Armenia

Another worthy mention is the World Food Programme (WFP), which is the biggest humanitarian organization in the world. It provides hot meals to 60,000 Armenian children in 587 schools in six of Armenia’s ten provinces for 180 days out of the school year.

New heating systems have also been implemented in Armenia’s rural communities to utilize solar energy and meet present-day demands of energy efficiency and environmental protection.

With the continuous help of organizations such as USAID and WFP, Armenia can continue on its path to becoming a developed country.

– Kennisha L. Crawford

Photo: Flickr

sustainable agriculture in armeniaArmenia is a highly vulnerable nation facing many challenges. Due to its geographic isolation, limited countries to export its goods and issues with the business sector, Armenia relies heavily on Russian support. Its aging infrastructure leaves the country open to casualties and significant damage if natural disasters caused by the effects of global warming are to occur.

Despite these challenges, efforts are being made to create sustainable agriculture in Armenia. There are many areas in which sustainable agriculture can have an impact, such as economic growth, the preservation of natural capital, the mitigation of climate change, reversing environmental degradation and alleviating poverty.

With financial assistance from the European Union, EaP Green Partnership for Environment and Growth seeks to develop sustainable and organic agriculture in Eastern Europe, including Armenia. In close proximity to the EU markets, this project will allow low levels of fertilizers and pesticides to be used on crops while also aiding in the labor market by creating more farming jobs.

Why Organic?

Organic, sustainable agriculture in Armenia offers opportunities to revitalize the countryside and restore ecosystem functionality while also developing new local businesses and agro-tourism opportunities, according to UNEP’s comprehensive assessment of the region. Between 2003 and 2013, the EU’s organic market exploded, growing massively throughout the decade. “The subsequently high degree of dependency on organic imports from outside the EU provides excellent opportunities for potential producers and exporters in neighboring East European countries.”

Armenia has a wide range of traditional crop varieties that are ideally adapted to local climate conditions and are resistant to drought, diseases and pests. These crops require lower levels of fertilizers and pesticides, making them excellent candidates to create sustainable agriculture in Armenia. Armenian “ancient” crop varieties, like Armenian honey, herbs and dried fruit, are perfect for international trade thanks to their uniqueness in the market.

Although export bans in Eastern Europe are a threat to organic value chains, Armenia has signed the Russia-led Customs Union with the aid of the EaP Green Partnership for Environment and Growth. This will allow more access to the EU markets, which will lead to significant export opportunities.

By creating more opportunities for organic, sustainable agriculture in Armenia, the nation will be impacted greatly. Although this project will not solve all its problems, it is a step in the right direction, a step towards national security.

– Kailey Brennan

Photo: Flickr

development projects in armenia

With a population of over three million, Armenia relies heavily on Russian support due to its geographic isolation, numerous monopolies in the business sector and a small list of countries to which it can export its goods. The unemployment rate in the country is nearly 19 percent as of 2016. Development projects in Armenia are taking place that seek to address these issues among others.

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) is a Peace Corps project that has been teaching English in Armenian villages and towns since 1992. Peace Corps TEFL volunteers work in both secondary schools and colleges. The project has two goals: improving student academic performance and success in life and improving the effectiveness of teachers by forming communities and relationships with their TEFL colleagues.

Irrigation Systems Enhancement Project (ISEP)

In 2013, the World Bank Board of Executive Directors approved a $30 million loan for the ISEP. The goal of this project is to build efficient and sustainable irrigation while reducing the amount of energy used. In conjunction with The World Bank, the ISEP has successfully managed to decrease water shortages and increase the reliability of water supply and delivery.

Improving the Quality of Neonatal Care Services in Armenia

This development project in Armenia is a USAID initiative, and it seeks to improve upon the performance of health care providers through family-centered neonatal care, creating a system of constant quality improvement in healthcare facilities and strengthening the capacity of selected professional associations in advancing neonatal care standards. By achieving these goals, this program will address the issue of Armenia’s child mortality rate.

2015 Armenia Demographic and Health Survey (ADHS)

The ADHS is a nationwide household survey that is used to gather key demographic information on health-related issues. Information from the survey allows government officials to make decisions on how much funding will be allocated for which health programs.

The Development Foundation of Armenia (DFA)

One of the core development projects in Armenia is the country’s leading authority on investment, export and tourism promotion. The Development Foundation of Armenia aids possible investors by providing information on investment opportunities, the country’s business climate and recent government legislation. The DFA promotes tourism by running campaigns that show Armenia as a popular tourist destination and creating trips that familiarize international media with the country. Recently, the DFA appointed a representative in Chicago.

With these development projects in Armenia, along with others currently taking place, Armenia will be able to make strides in its economy and healthcare. With help from organizations like USAID, the World Bank and the Peace Corps, continued improvement seems to be a likely possibility.

– Blake Chambers

Photo: Flickr

infrastructure in armeniaGround transportation plays a critical role in Armenia’s economy, but the country’s roads and highway systems have needed an overhaul for several decades. The Lifeline Road Network Improvement Project sponsored by the World Bank will play a critical role in improving infrastructure in Armenia in the area where it’s most needed.

During ancient times, Armenia was located at the historic crossroads of Asia and Europe along The Great Silk Road, making it an important center of commerce and trade. Today, Armenia has closed borders with two of its neighboring states, Turkey and Azerbaijan, and no port access, meaning that the transportation of imports and exports is limited to ground transportation. With restricted access to the region and reliance on roads built in the Soviet Era, poor transportation infrastructure in Armenia has hurt the country’s overall economic growth and resulted in the economic isolation of rural areas.

Both of these factors have contributed to increased poverty levels in Armenia. The overall quality and reliability of a country’s infrastructure is a critical factor for businesses in all sectors. Thus, improving infrastructure in Armenia is one of the best ways to fuel its economic growth and thereby reduce poverty.

Statistics have illustrated Armenia’s need to improve infrastructure for some time. In 2014, Armenia ranked 107 in the world for infrastructure and 92 overall in the World Bank LPI Index. The Logistics Performance Index is a measure of each country’s performance across indicators including the quality of trade and transport-related infrastructure, the timeliness of shipments in reaching destination within the scheduled or expected delivery time, as well as competence and quality of logistics services.

Recognizing the significant need for improved infrastructure in Armenia, The World Bank committed to loaning the Armenian government the equivalent of $45 million US dollars in 2013 to fund the Lifeline Road Network Improvement Project for Armenia. This initiative seeks to improve infrastructure in Armenia in relation to its most critical sector, roads and ground transportation, by upgrading select lifeline roads that will allow rural areas to better access to markets and services.

Despite the Lifeline Road Network Improvement Project having been implemented for two years, Armenia’s overall LPI rank fell to 141 in 2016, with its infrastructure indicator falling to the position of 121. This has prompted an expansion of the initiative, complete with additional financing and the added goal of allocating funds to strengthen the capacity of the Ministry of Transport and Communication to manage the lifeline road network in the future. The redoubled efforts surrounding road improvement will continue through 2019, at which time the government is hoping to statistical evidence of significant improvement of transportation-related infrastructure.

The Armenian government hopes that improved infrastructure will mean fewer bumps in the road as the country seeks economic security, and The World Bank’s assistance has hopefully put them on the road to success.

– Savannah Bequeaith

Photo: Flickr