Child poverty in ArgentinaPrior to the COVID-19 pandemic, many children in Argentina had been living in poverty. The pandemic has caused numbers to soar due to its many negative effects. When considering the long-term presence and future impacts caused by poverty, it is all the more critical to help the children in this country, and around the world. This article highlights facts about child poverty in Argentina, as well as some organizations on the ground helping such children.

The Current Situation

There has never been a more critical time for action than now. UNICEF estimates that 63% of Argentinian children will be living in poverty by the end of 2020, due to COVID-19. In August of 2019, child poverty reached over 50%, with 13% of children in a state of hunger. As compared to the year prior, this is an 11% increase. UNICEF estimates that at the end of 2020, there will be an increase of 18.7% in extreme poverty among children and teenagers.

Stats

The above figures depict that one in every two Argentinian children lives in poverty, which amounts to five million children. One million of these children are homeless. Those who do have homes often deal with rough home lives. Many children are subject to child labor, which includes work as domestics or “house slaves.” These children end up working in illegal textile workshops, mining, construction, or agriculture. The exploitation of child labor is commonly related to sexual exploitation. In response, Argentina has passed laws and social programs to end child labor and sexual exploitation. However, the fight to end these practices must continue.

When not at home, (only a few) children received a formal education. As of 2017, nearly 20% of Argentinian children do not attend school. After the collapse of the economy nearly 20 years ago, funding for education was heavily reduced. Children living in poverty were the first to be affected, as they had to work in order to provide for their families. There are also issues with violence occurring in schools. Bodily punishment still takes place when young school children misbehave, which can develop into behavioral problems and the belief that violence is the norm.

As compared to the rest of the population, Native children are at high risk for poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment. For example, in the province of Tucumán, the Indigenous children and families live well below the poverty line and have also suffered illegal evictions from their ancestral lands. Additionally, these children are exposed to violence, malnutrition, disease, and a lack of proper education.

Aid

Child poverty in Argentina seems rather defeating based on these statistics. However, there are multiple organizations that are on the ground fighting for the human rights, safety, health, and happiness of Argentinian children.

One is Mensajeros de la Paz, a temporary home for vulnerable girls. Another is the Sumando Manos Foundation, which extends pediatric visits out to more than 7,000 at-risk children and their communities. The foundation also supplies food, provides critical medical and dental attention, and teaches fundamental health care. There is also Fundacion Oportunidad. This organization increases opportunities for economic and social integration of young Argentinian women in a situation of social vulnerability. Involvement in these organizations, as well as donation opportunities, are endless.

There are five dimensions of well-being that are vital to the success of childhood development. They are adequate nutrition, education, safe areas to live and play, access to health services, and financial stability. The fight cannot stop until there is an end to child poverty in Argentina and until each child has access to a self, healthy life.

Naomi Schmeck
Photo: Flickr

The Malbec MiracleIn the early 1900s, Argentina was a rising star. The country had an excellent climate, cheap land, and a strategic location for trade. Soon enough, Argentina had one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. People expected skyscrapers and cities to replace rural land. This, however, did not come to pass. Argentina’s economic growth suddenly faded, and poverty rates grew. From 1975 to 1990, Argentina suffered from military dictators and constant political conflict. It seemed to be over for the rising star. Then, in a small province called Mendoza, the Malbec miracle changed everything.

A Turn of the Century Depression

The wine, as a commodity, was not new to Argentina. In fact, the country’s wine industry was a large reason for its economic success in the early 1900s. Introduced by European settlers, Argentina’s temperate climate was perfect for growing wine. Argentina also does not have a large presence of Phylloxera, an insect that destroys vineyards. The province of Mendoza, with its high altitude and intense sunlight, is particularly suitable for growing wine. Unfortunately, Argentina’s wine industry fell along with its overall economy during a major recession from 1998 to 2002. This was due to a dependence on domestic demand.

Around 90% of the wine produced in Argentina was consumed locally. When poverty started to increase, people could no longer buy wine. Argentina’s economy hit record lows in the late 1980s. And, the grape variety called Malbec was unknown and dismissed by many as a “poor-mans grape.” It was clear that Argentina needed a miracle.

Economic Success

Argentines could not grow the Malbec grape. It was very susceptible to parasites and needed high elevation and perfect weather for cultivation. Most of the world had forgotten about the grape. But, Mendoza’s high elevation and parasite free environment made it perfect to grow Malbec. Improvements in technology and growing methods made the Malbec into fine wine. In the 1990s, Argentina started to focus on exporting its wine. This proved to be a tremendous success, with fine wine exports increasing from $7.5 million in 1990 to $120 million in 2001. Since most of the wine exported was Malbec, the once-forgotten grape proved instrumental in Argentina’s economic recovery.

Argentina Today

The Malbec miracle had impacts far beyond the wine industry. Argentina now had a reputation for producing fine wine. This opened the doors for foreign investment and tourism. People all over the world wanted to visit Mendoza. With this new identity, as the world’s premier country for Malbec wine, Argentina’s economy continued to grow despite numerous setbacks including the 1998-2002 Great Depression. Upon Argentina’s economic recovery, the poverty rate decreased dramatically from 44% in 2002 to 16% in 2007.

The strong wine industry continued to create jobs and ensure global interest in the country. Now, Argentina is the fifth-largest wine producer in the world. The country also maintains its title as the Malbec grape producer, growing more than 75% of all Malbec in the world. This success can be largely attributed to Mendoza, which produces about 80% of Argentina’s wine.

Looking Forward

The Malbec miracle has completely revitalized Argentina’s image throughout the world. Mendoza’s economic success has largely reduced poverty for everyone in the country. Although Argentina is no longer the star many thought it would be, dramatic events like the Malbec miracle have changed things for the better. Argentina now has a significant place in the global market, with its wine industry leading the way. Mendoza remains the gold standard for Malbec wine, with the once-forgotten “poor man’s grape” having become the miracle that made Argentina into what it is today.

Evan Weber
Photo: Flickr

Disability and Poverty in Argentina. Little girl with long brown hair and wearing an orange sweater.
Argentina has taken steps to address employment discrimination, access to transportation and access to quality education for people with disabilities, factors that have historically contributed to a correlation between disability and poverty in Argentina.

According to estimates based on census data from 2010, around 5 million Argentines have a disability and the unemployment rate for people with disabilities in Argentina stood at 91% in 2004. Additionally, the United Nations has reported that youth with disabilities are far more likely to fall at or below the poverty line in comparison to those who do not have disabilities. However, recent action from the government is beginning to address the link between disability and poverty in Argentina.

Addressing Employment Discrimination 

In Argentina, people have often seen those with disabilities as “objects of charity” rather than productive members of society entitled to the same opportunities and responsibilities as anyone else. These views have inhibited disabled people’s ability to acquire employment and earn living wages for their work. A shift away from this perception of people with disabilities began during the 1970s and in 1981, the Argentine government agreed to approve an employment quota requiring that disabled people hold 4% of federal government jobs. Additionally, in 1988, the legislature passed an anti-discrimination law to help protect disabled Argentines from discriminatory practices. However, due to a lack of enforcement and regulation of such laws, the correlation between disability and poverty in Argentina has persisted for decades.

A significant step toward helping disabled Argentines obtain equal employment has come with Argentina’s ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2008. The convention has since received constitutional status in the country.

This treaty makes Argentina accountable for upholding its commitment to fully including people with disabilities in all areas of society. As such, in 2011, a National Disability Observatory emerged to supervise the implementation of the convention. It involves various working groups consisting of people with disabilities and public officials to monitor different areas of public policy including access to employment.

Since the adoption of the CRPD, Argentina has allocated over 724 million Argentine pesos toward helping promote the employment of people with disabilities. These programs have ranged from vocational training to the implementation of supported employment programs across government agencies to help reach the 4% job quota in public employment in 2017.

Addressing Access to Transportation

Although access to public transportation remains a significant barrier to employment for many disabled Argentines, some have taken measures to make public transportation physically and economically accessible to those with disabilities. Reports have determined that almost all buses in the capital city of Buenos Aires have a manual ramp at the rear door.

The subway station that people know as the subte has automated ramps and street elevators that often lead directly to the boarding platform. Additionally, plans have emerged to increase the number of stations with braille signage and tactile markers. These features have enabled many Argentines to travel freely and independently from their homes to workplaces.

As disability and poverty in Argentina so often interweave, the government has allowed disabled Argentines to ride all public transportation free of charge with the use of disability certificates. In some cases travel may even be free for a traveling companion depending on the disability. These certificates are available following a certification process that is voluntary and of no cost to the disabled person or their family.

Addressing Access to Education 

The United Nations has stated that as countries work to reduce poverty, they must ensure that all youth receive the same opportunities to contribute to society, and that increasing access to inclusive education is instrumental in bridging this gap as inequities in education negatively impact employment options for individuals with disabilities. While Argentina guarantees access to education for children with disabilities, these children often meet with discriminatory practices in schools and are subject to a lower quality of education, further compounding the effects of disability and poverty in the country.

As of 2016, the Ministry of Education in Argentina organized 35 events and workshops focused on drafting inclusive education guidelines and providing training to teachers. These programs have reached an estimated 45,250 people consisting of teaching staff and the general public. The Ministry has also prepared materials to increase awareness of inclusive education practices, including guidelines for providing accommodations and support to students.

The Argentine government has begun overseeing the implementation of inclusive education policies in all the nation’s provinces with a toll-free national hotline to record and track instances of discrimination in educational settings. Furthermore, with the support of the World Bank, planning and development are underway for inclusive education projects for schools in rural areas of the country where a lack of basic resources and services exacerbates disability and poverty in Argentina.

– Emely Recinos
Photo: Flickr

The Max FoundationIt is a struggle to deal with a family member having cancer emotionally, physically and financially. The burden of paying for a family member’s hospital bills makes it difficult to pay for other things like food, shelter and clothing. The Max Foundation in Argentina has stepped up to this challenge by helping cancer patients get the treatment that they need.

Poverty Rates

Argentina’s poverty rate was 35.5% at the end of 2019, which shows a steady increase over the past few years. The poverty rate of children younger than 14 is 53%. The statistics have gotten better in the six years prior to 2018, an 18.7% drop in poverty rates. However, COVID-19 has not been kind to Argentina as the country continues to battle its two-year recession.

Disease

In addition to the poverty rate and pandemic, Argentina is not immune to cancer either. Every year more than 110,000 people are diagnosed with some form of cancer in Argentina. Some of the causes of cancer in this country are tobacco and HPV.

Around 22% of the population smokes and children who are between the ages of 13 and 15 are six points higher than that. Out of all the deaths caused by cancer, 26% are caused by tobacco. Argentina does have the resources to enact preventative measures. The country has even enacted breast cancer screening, although most women do not attend regularly. However, more could still be done.

That’s why organizations like the Max Foundation are so important. Poverty is hard enough to try to overcome when one is healthy let alone when having to fight cancer. Cancer patients need organizations like the Max Foundation, so they have one less thing to worry about during the tough fight for their life.

The Max Foundation

The Max Foundation has been around since 1997. The Rivarola family left Argentina to travel to the U.S. to get cancer treatment for their son Max. The organization was founded when he passed away. Other families in Latin America have children with leukemia just like Max, and the Rivarola family wanted to do something for them.

Now, The Max Foundation provides cancer treatments to countries all around the world. The world has seen that viruses like COVID-19 have no borders and neither does cancer. The Max Foundation almost has no borders as well. It has served 73 countries and given over 11 million cancer treatments to people as of the start of 2017.

The Max Foundation works by offering help to patients whose doctors have recommended them. The organization then gets the medicine to them through the partner companies. The medicine is donated by pharmaceutical companies like The Tanner Pharma Group.

Argentina’s poverty rate has not been helped by the recent pandemic. COVID-19 is not diminishing cancer diagnosis either. But there is still hope. The Max Foundation has been helping cancer patients for years and they are a light in the dark for the cancer patients of Argentina as well as many other countries around the world.

Moriah Thomas
Photo: Flickr

soccer players practicing philanthropy
Soccer, or football players to most of the world, are most often recognized for their impressive work on the field. However, professional soccer players have a lot of potential for impactful good off the field. This, due to their status, influence and financial capabilities. Listed here are five soccer players (part of FIFA) who have a powerful impact on the lives of impoverished peoples. Importantly, their reach extends throughout the world. These are great examples of professional soccer players practicing philanthropy.

5 FIFA Soccer Players Practicing Philanthropy

  1. Lionel Messi is an Argentine footballer who plays forward and captains La Liga club, Barcelona and the Argentinian national team. In response to COVID-19, Messi has made a wide variety of contributions through his organization, The Leo Messi Foundation. He began his foundation in 2007. Its mission focuses on helping kids and teenagers using health, education and sports initiatives. Messi has donated €1 million, split between Hospital Clinic in Catalunya and a health center in Argentina. Additionally, he gave €200,000 to UNICEF projects in Kenya. As a result, more than 2,000 citizens gained access to clean water.
  2. Mohammed Salah is a winger for the English Premier League club, Liverpool and the Egyptian national team. Salah has donated thousands of tons of food and fresh meat to his hometown in Egypt, to help families who have been impacted by COVID-19. Also, Salah donated to the Bassioun General Hospital. Moreover, he (along with his father) gave land to establish a sewage treatment plant in his hometown. With this effort, he hopes to provide a stable source of clean water to the region. Furthermore, Salah has been selected as the first ambassador for the U.N. Instant Network Schools, which connects refugees and host countries’ students with online education opportunities.
  3. Sadio Mane is a forward for the English Premier League club, Liverpool. Mane is funding the construction of a hospital for the village of Bambali, Senegal, where he was born. He took inspiration to do so after losing his father to a stomach illness, with no hospital in the village available to help him. Considering Senegal’s inhabitants, 33% are below the poverty line and Mane’s contributions to schools, hospitals and mosques in his home village are helping improve the quality of life for individuals living there.
  4. Mesut Ozil is a German footballer who plays as a midfielder for the English Premier League club, Arsenal. It is reported that he has paid for more than 1,000 operations for children across the world, food for 100,000 refugees in Turkey and Syria and is an ambassador for the children’s charity — Rays of Sunshine, in England.
  5. Jermain Defoe is currently a striker for the Scottish Premiership club, Rangers. He created the Jermain Defoe Foundation in 2013 to support at-risk youth in his family’s hometown, Caribbean, St. Lucia. His foundation’s mission is to help kids who are vulnerable and in need in the U.K., the Caribbean Islands and Northern Island. His grandparents grew up in St. Lucia and his foundation has worked on several projects in St. Lucia. The foundation’s work includes the refurbishment of the Soufriere Primary School after a hurricane,  donation of shoes to the Daigen School and the financial backing of The Rainbow Children’s Home.

Good Work: On and Off the Pitch

In addition to their work on the football pitch, these soccer players practicing philanthropy are doing excellent work for humanitarian missions and initiatives.  The contributions of these soccer players in healthcare, education and nutrition are improving the lives of the individuals affected by their initiatives worldwide.

Hannah Bratton
Photo: Flickr

poverty in argentinaArgentina is a presidential republic that achieved its independence from Spain in 1816. Starting with the election of President Mauricio Macri in November of 2015, a promise of reform and international reintegration was on the minds of many Argentinians. The current president, Alberto Fernandez promised further reform and economic improvement in Argentina. However, poverty is an issue that the country must overcome in order to realize the dream of a better country. The current state of poverty in Argentina is of question as well as the measures taken to alleviate the issue.

Poverty Levels in Argentina

The poverty rate in Argentina is on the rise. In 2017, the CIA estimated that 25.7% of Argentina’s population lived below the poverty line. This poverty rate increased to 35.4% in 2019 and in the same year, it rose again to 40.8%. This is also reflected in Argentina’s GDP which declined from $642.7 billion in 2017 to $450 billion in 2019.

Many attribute the current state of poverty in Argentina to the unregulated spending of the Argentinian government. Additionally, many critics of the government’s economic policies claim that by spending more than what they have, the government created a public deficit. This increasing fiscal deficit led to inflation which is at the root of Argentina’s poverty.

Reasons for Poverty in Argentina

As mentioned, inflation resulted from the increasing fiscal deficit of the Argentinian government. However, this was also a consequence of the continuous printing of pesos to pay off debts. Consequently,  Argentina’s consumer prices rose 53.8% in 2019. The lack of affordability of food, for example, had drastic effects on Argentinian citizens’ lives. In addition, the Central Bank of Argentina rapidly sold its reserve of foreign currency in order to counterbalance the rapid depreciation of the peso. During the same time period, the Central Bank also increased interest rates to 45%. All of these factors further contributed to the additional inflation in the Argentinian economy.

How Poverty in Argentina is Being Alleviated

There are many people and organizations who are trying to alleviate poverty in Argentina. One aspect of poverty is homelessness. In 2019, there were an estimated 198,000 homeless in Buenos Aires alone. Tadeo Donegana, an 18-year-old Argentinian student, developed a map app called Ayumapp to help the homeless of Argentina. Ayumapp allows its users to add locations of the homeless in their respective cities. Users can also add comments about what kind of specific help the homeless need.

The UNDP is also working with the Argentinian government to reduce poverty in the country. By furthering their Sustainable Development Goals, the UNDP has made progress in alleviating poverty. Some of UNDP’s outcomes include guaranteed food security for 198,000 people, providing healthcare to 15 million people without health insurance and training 7,500 youth to join the labor market.

Poverty in Argentina has its roots in the Argentinian government’s unrestrained spending. The huge fiscal deficit that resulted from this government spending and failed attempts to revitalize the Argentinian economy led to massive inflation. This inflation resulted in a lack of food affordability and homelessness in Argentina. However, there are those who are working tirelessly to better the current situation in Argentina. With this continuous support, many hope that a brighter future lies ahead for the country.

YongJin Yi
Photo: Flickr

job guarantees
As global unemployment and food insecurity (as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic) rise — there is a great need for innovative macroeconomic solutions to mitigate the adverse effects of these crises on the world’s poor. The idea of a federal job guarantees has become more popular lately. This perhaps is a response to the mass international unemployment and recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Job guarantee programs, which have been implemented across the world, involve mass public employment for all people who are seeking a job. These programs are helping to lift millions out of poverty while also offering non-monetary health benefits. Creative ideas like job guarantee programs are imperative to consider when seeking solutions for the devastating harm that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused to the world’s poor.

The Benefits of Employment

Employment offers the obvious benefit of the income and the corresponding ability to provide for oneself and one’s family, monetarily. Mass public employment can reduce the need for many social welfare programs and replace them with salaries earned from substantive, productive and helpful work. In certain scenarios, job guarantees can provide healthcare, childcare and other benefits to the world’s poor.

Job guarantees can also provide individuals with non-monetary benefits that only employment can offer. Employment and higher income have been consistently correlated with better physical and mental health. Yet another reason why this type of program can be incredibly beneficial. Employment has also been linked to lower mortality rates and a reduced risk of depression and other mental illnesses. Furthermore, working individuals feel a higher sense of self-esteem and even recover more quickly from sickness, when employed.

Where It Has Worked

Countries across the world, most famously India and Argentina, have implemented employment guarantee programs. In Argentina, the government started the “Plan Jefes y Jefas” program in response to the country’s 2001 financial collapse. This program sought to improve public infrastructure such as sanitation, roads and schools by guaranteeing employment to any heads of households for a maximum of 20 hours per week.

The program specifically targeted female heads of households, as women are often left out of the labor force in Argentina and are quick to be labeled “unemployable.” In fact, 71% of the beneficiaries of the program were women. At the time, Argentina was classified as a developing economy — proving that job guarantees can thrive outside of the developed world.

In 2005, the Indian government passed the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) — which provided guaranteed jobs to India’s poorest rural population. The program has been an unprecedented success in raising wages for rural workers, helping women enter the workforce, increasing access to healthy foods and education and decreasing the number of people who unwillingly leave their home villages to seek employment in cities.

The program reached more than 54 million households, underscoring its ease of access. The success of the Indian job guarantee program demonstrates how transformative these types of programs are in fighting extreme poverty.

The Power of a Job Guarantee

Along with the individual relief that job guarantees provide, they also offer significant macroeconomic benefits. Job guarantees empower workers and increase their bargaining power against global conglomerates. Also, job guarantees can increase consumer spending and therefore boost tax income for developing governments. In that same vein, it is these very types of governments that would benefit greatly from the increased revenue. These programs can help steady the economy during recessions while also maintaining inflation through stabilizing purchasing power.

Job guarantee programs have serious potential to effectively fight poverty while also providing benefits to the governments that administer them. These programs have the potential to provide income, power, health benefits and other opportunities to the world’s poor. Moreover, as proven tools in the fight against global poverty, their use may be paramount.

Garrett O’Brien
Photo: Flickr

Social movements in Argentina
There is a vibrant culture of using social movements in Argentina to achieve political change. In recent years, Argentines have created community movements that push change related to hunger, sanitation, gender equality, same-sex rights, psychosocial and emotional treatment reform and much more. Notorious social movements throughout the country’s history of political and economic hardship have led to transformative policies around poverty, inequity and inequality. Here are three notable social movements in Argentina that have fostered attention to human rights and political reform.

Mothers of The Plaza de Mayo and Demilitarization

Between 1976 and 1983, Argentina experienced a period referred to as the “dirty war,” which resulted from a highly-militarized junta ruling under President Jorge Rafael Videla. This militarized dictatorship imposed extreme violence, regular kidnappings and killings of Argentinian citizens. On 30 April 1977, 14 mothers of disappeared children took to the Plaza de Mayo, located directly outside the presidential palace, to protest both the mystery behind their children’s disappearances and state violence. These 14 mothers inspired Argentines with their bravery, encouraging many to speak up about personal sufferings at the hands of the standing government. Eventually, oppositional parties, leading labor groups and other community leaders overthrew this militarized system. Democracy returned in 1983 under elected President Raúl Alfonsín — a long-term result of the heroism of The Mothers of Plaza de Mayo.

The Piquetero Movement

The 2001 Piquetero social movement in Argentina brought destructive neoliberal policies to an end. The neoliberal ideals of President De La Rúa threatened the rights of many Argentines suffering from systemic injustices. Many working-class Argentines lost jobs without governmental support, which rippled to affect local neighborhood living standards. Neoliberal policies perpetuated poor living conditions, unemployment and governmental neglect of basic human rights. Many Argentines had to demonstrate for their own lives.

Neoliberal policy oppressed the primary voices involved in this social movement in Argentina. These groups included the unemployed, labor unions and even middle-class workers. As the Piquetero protests broke out in December 2001, economic minister Domingo Cavallo and President De La Rúa both chose to resign. This allowed local communities to band together with newfound power. Solidarity, equality and equity of need-based opportunity were cultivated across classes, communities and neighborhoods, resulting in permanent, unionized local powers. In 2003, the president-elect of Argentina, Néstor Kirchner, rejected Argentina’s former neoliberal economic system. Still, he brought little reform to systematized social and economic issues within the country.

The Evita Movement

Named after former Argentine first lady Eva Perón, the Evita movement responded to vestigial aggressions of neoliberal economics. Eva Perón championed multiple labor and feminist movements during her husband’s 1946 presidency. Now, Perón is a popular culture idol within the country. Her values are the face of this social movement in Argentina, which fights for the redistribution of wealth and access to human rights.

The movement started in 2003 in support of President Kirchner’s plans for economic and social reform. Although President Kirchner did not reform systemic issues of oppression, the Evita movement is committed to addressing systemic poverty that resulted from Argentina’s debilitating period of neoliberalism. Inspired by Eva Perón’s ideals, the Evita movement works to redistribute wealth and power to people burdened by systemic violence.

Argentina is rich with a history of powerful unions, leaders and communities. With courage, the country has achieved full governmental renewal multiple times and worked to empower oppressed voices. The Argentinian population provides inspiration for social and political change across the globe.

Lilia Wilson
Photo: Pixabay

Child Labor in ArgentinaMore than 125 million children are currently forced into child labor, primarily to help financially support their families. Argentina is one of the many countries that informally uses child labor in its factories and industries. Unfortunately, these children are often overworked and underpaid. As the cruelty and injustice of child labor become increasingly exposed, strides are being made to eliminate the inhumane practice worldwide. Here are seven facts about child labor in Argentina.

7 Facts About Child Labor in Argentina

  1. Cruel conditions and high poverty levels force many young Argentinians into child labor. More than 19% of children ages five to fifteen enter the labor system to provide for their families. This figure is typically higher in urban areas, with up to 43% of children working to supplement their families.

  2. Gender plays a defining role in economic prosperity. In Argentina, there is a large socioeconomic gender gap between men and women in wages and school enrollment. For children under fifteen, a 22% wage gap exists between boys and girls. The problem worsens with age: men are 40% more likely to receive higher wages than women in comparable fields. As such, men more commonly drop out of school and work full-time to provide for their families.

  3. Actions are being taken to reduce child labor. While child labor remains prevalent, many projects and programs have helped lessen the practice in Argentina. Extensive time and work obligations limit many of these children from attending school and flourishing in their education. Proniño, a philanthropy program in Buenos Aires, aims to rectify this problem by funding scholarships for families dependent on their children for income. With more than 1,590 beneficiaries, Proniño has provided hope to numerous students with only a 1.9% dropout rate.

  4. Human trafficking is an improving, yet rampant concern. In Argentina, more than 10,000 victims were rescued from human trafficking. Yet, many are still suffering: there are currently at least 4,000 human trafficking victims every year, most of whom are women and children. Human trafficking often entails coercing children into illicit activities like drug dealing or sexual exploitation. Large international organizations such as UNICEF are taking major steps to eradicate these actions and increase opportunities for disadvantaged children in Argentina. For example, the Ministry of Education and UNICEF enacted a two-year program to provide scholarships for students to attend school in areas protected from human trafficking.  Similarly, UNICEF has allocated an annual budget of $123 million to establish social programs for countries including Argentina. This funding also strengthens educational opportunities for children vulnerable to dangerous household situations and child labor.

  5. Child labor takes many forms. Although common forms of child labor, such as sweatshops, are technically banned in Argentina, the practice persists in other, less obvious forms. For example, many children in the countryside are coerced into prostitution or work on tobacco fields. Despite the historic popularity of these actions, drastic measures are emerging to mitigate their occurrence. Particularly, the Argentinian government is taking stronger stances against child labor laws and corrupt business practices, such as exploiting children to work on plantations. In fact, the government signed a 2018-2020 plan to end human trafficking, child prostitution and exploitation. Also, for the first time, the government sent out a nationwide survey through Argentina’s National Institute of Statistics to better understand child labor laws. The government is currently researching more measures to eliminate child labor.

  6. Healthcare access and child labor are interconnected. Access to healthcare is a prolonged problem in Argentina that perpetuates children into forced labor. Many poor Argentinian families turn to child labor as one of the only ways to afford the medical attention they need. However, a law established in 2005 provides health services and medical supplies to underprivileged children, eliminating much of the financial pressure to engage in child labor for this purpose.

  7. International organizations are getting involved. The United Nations has established objectives to not only lower child labor, but also limit poverty in Argentina. By establishing the Millennial Development Goals, the United Nations hopes to free 760,000 children and families living in underdeveloped areas from child labor. This project focuses on three major hubs of child labor within the country: Buenos Aires, Mendoza and Santa Fe.

Although Argentina still uses child labor in many of its business practices, governments and international organizations are acting swiftly to reduce the amount of forced labor impressed upon young children. With these comprehensive plans in the making, there is promise for eradicating child labor in Argentina.

– Aishwarya Thiyagarajan
Photo: Flickr

Renewable Energy in ArgentinaOver the past decade, various countries within Latin America have begun to develop their renewable energy sector, including Argentina, which has been able to flourish under the use of this new technology. Abundant winds are present in the Patagonia region located in the south, while in the northwest there is constant sunshine. The use of renewable energy in Argentina is as beneficial for economic reasons as it is for environmental reasons. It creates new jobs and attracts foreign investment, both of which are beneficial to those living in poverty.

Economic Independence

Argentina has employed renewable energy in Argentina for several reasons. For one, the nation wants to be economically independent, and not rely on imports from other countries to meet their energy needs. Argentina struggled through default of $100 billion in 2001, losing 75% of its currency value. In 2005, energy subsidies grew from 1.5% to 12% within only a few years, sharply increasing government spending. Low investment in the domestic energy sector also made Argentina dependent on importing oil from other countries. In order to diversify its energy sector and remove its independence, Argentina sought out its own abundant natural and renewable resources.

Argentina has also made the transition to renewable energy because the country possesses many regions that are adaptable to solar and wind farming. Helpfully, the areas of Argentina with the most wind and solar energy potential are sparsely populated, meaning that the installation of wind turbines and solar panels are not as invasive to people’s homes or property.

Wind Energy

Many of the most powerful winds in Argentina can be found in the Patagonia region, located near the Argentina-Chile border. Argentina’s largest wind farm, called the Madryn Wind Farm, is located in this region. It has the capacity to produce 987,000 MW of energy per year. The wind farm became operational in 2019 and is home to 62 wind turbines, each 117 meters high.

Solar Energy

Many, but not all, of Argentina’s solar panels can be found on farms in the province of Entre Rios. Some of the farmers in this province raise rice and are reliant on water pumps to water their crops. Previously, these farmers had often gone out of business because they could not afford the fuel to power these necessary pumps; with the installation of solar panels, however, farmers can now rely on cheaper solar energy for power. This is an especially important development, considering that 13% of Argentina’s GDP comes from agriculture. The installation of solar panels has helped farmers keep their livelihoods and contribute to national economic growth.

Solar panels have also contributed to safety in the Puna Highlands of Argentina. A village located in the highlands, called San Francisco, used to be difficult to traverse at night. But thanks to the installation of 40 solar panels that power LED lights within the village after sunset, that is no longer the case. The village can now be easily spotted at night, and travelers no longer have to wait until sunrise to leave the village.

These examples are just a few ways in which renewable energy in Argentina can benefit people living in poverty and improve the economy. This technology must be pursued and perfected in years to come to guarantee further progress.

Jacob E. Lee
Photo: Wikimedia