In September 2016, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) declared antimicrobial resistance (AMR) a major health threat for nations in every part of the world. AMR comes about when bacteria evolve to resist antibiotics used for the treatment of many infectious diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and salmonellosis. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AMR can bring harm to people of all types and agriculture, health care and veterinary industries. Antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asia is of particular concern.
Antibiotics have been essential to curing infections ever since Alexander Fleming discovered the first form of antibiotics, penicillin, in 1928. In the developing countries of Southeast Asia, antibiotics often do not have regulation and are available for purchase without a prescription from a physician, which exacerbates the phenomenon of AMR and causes major concern. This is an example of how poverty in Southeast Asia contributes to the antibiotic resistance crisis.
Contributions to Antimicrobial Resistance
AMR is a natural process. With or without the use of antibiotics, bacteria will always evolve to fight for survival by strengthening their resistance or by multiplying. Despite this, humans make AMR worse. A plethora of unnatural issues exaggerates AMR, but there are two that are cause for the greatest concern: unregulated sale of antibiotics and the use of antibiotics not as medicine for humans but as growth promoters and disease treatments in livestock.
Unregulated Antibiotics and Self Medication in Southeast Asia
The World Health Organization Southeast Asia Region (WHO SEAR) includes the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Timor-Leste. These countries are notorious for selling antibiotics as an unregulated product to the public, a reality of many developing countries around the world. In developing countries, the prevalence of infectious deadly diseases is higher than in more developed nations, making the likelihood of death from these issues higher.
Many consider the countries in Southeast Asia listed above to be hotspots for the spread of AMR. Here, the cost of antibiotics bought over the counter is lower than the cost to visit a physician or health professional. As a result, many self-medicate, making it the leading cause of AMR. Self-medication refers to the use of medication to treat ailments, diseases or infections without the guidance of a medical professional. Without curbing this habit practiced in WHO SEAR, bacteria quickly mutate to resist treatment, leading to more intense illnesses, increased medication prices and death.
The Use of Antibiotics for Livestock in Southeast Asia
In this region, the use of antibiotics in livestock outweighs the use of antibiotics in humans. To keep livestock in countries around the world healthy, farmers commonly use antimicrobials to treat and prevent diseases and decrease mortality in livestock. Though people widely practice this, the countries of WHO SEAR use this technique excessively due to poverty. With weak regulatory laws to govern or survey the effects this has on the AMR crisis, AMR is aggressively growing.
Where previously people ignored it when considering the causes of AMR, livestock antibiotic use has recently become a growing concern across the globe. With recognition came complication: in developing countries, farmers rely on the use of antibiotics to prevent illness or death of their animals so they can continue to make a profit. In Southeast Asia especially, the hard reality is that these issues layer and mix with other issues, such as poverty and food security. Policies regarding antimicrobial consumption in livestock that work for developed nations often do not work in underdeveloped nations, due to the complex differences of cultural differences and locations. It is for these reasons that poverty contributes to antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asia.
Efforts to Slow Antibiotic Resistance in Southeast Asia
Given that this crisis is on a global scale and affecting every nation, some are making efforts to control AMR. Unfortunately, there is no way to stop it completely. There are, however, the WHO’s action plans that can bring light to this topic. WHO has laid out five strategic goals: to increase recognition and understanding of AMR, to increase global monitoring and research, to decrease the prevalence of infectious diseases requiring antibiotic treatment, to improve the use of antibiotic treatment and to create a case for sustainable investment that includes all nations, no matter location or level of development
An example of raising awareness is World Antibiotic Awareness Week. Every year brings the annual World Antibiotic Awareness Week, created by the WHO in 2015. This week in November sets goals to increase awareness and encourage health care providers, policymakers and the public to practice healthy and sustainable techniques to slow the spread of antibiotic resistance in Southeast Asia.
– Anna Giffels