Poverty in Zimbabwe seems like a fact of life. However, Zimbabwe used to have some of the best health and education statistics in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, political and economic crises in recent years have exacerbated poverty and brought with it a host of social problems. Between 1990 and 2003 the poverty rate rose from 25 % to 63%. Deterioration of infrastructure has isolated rural communities and led to a high poverty rate in these rural areas. This isolation has also contributed to a decrease in farm income and production as a result of inaccessibility to markets. As such, food shortages in the country are rising. HIV infection, though declining, remains at 18 percent, one of the highest rates of infection in the world.
As a result of the poverty in Zimbabwe, which is concentrated in the Matabeleland North where 70 percent of inhabitants are classified as poor, migration of male heads-of-household has increased the number of female-led families. Since women typically have less access to economic opportunity and credit, these households are incredibly disadvantaged, as many of them are also in arid areas without irrigation.
Before independence and the shift towards smallholder agriculture in the country, Zimbabwe relied upon two sectors of agriculture: large scale commercial cash crops and small scale food production. But land reforms by the government have forced a transition to small scale agriculture across the board, which has led to much unemployment and a difficult changeover process. Capital investment is almost nonexistent in Zimbabwe because of sanctions and economic crises, further hindering economic growth.
One key to fighting poverty in Zimbabwe is stimulating agricultural growth through investment in basic infrastructure. Nearly 40 percent of the country’s roads are in poor condition; fixing them will provide rural areas with better access to water, seeds, fertilizer and other basic agricultural supplies. Such a move would also give the country’s farmers better access to markets. Other infrastructure investments along this line could include irrigation systems, water sanitation, and railway access.
Like several other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zimbabwe needs to become more politically and economically stable if any progress is to be achieved in the region. Ultimately, if political stability is achieved there, new investments in infrastructure could be made, stimulating economic growth and helping to decrease poverty rates. Western markets could also begin to reap the benefits of raw materials from one of the most resource-rich regions in the world.
– Martin Drake